How thick was the ice?

November 8th, 2016

AMHERST, MA – Our Keck project studying the construction of a glaciovolcanic ridge in southwest Iceland is in full swing and our students are hard at work on their research. You may remember that we traveled to Iceland this summer to conduct field work, then returned to Wooster, where we prepared our samples for analysis. All of the time and energy devoted to sample preparation is finally paying off. This weekend, Chloe Wallace (’17, Wooster) and I met Cara Lembo (’17, Amherst) at UMass Amherst to analyze their samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Electron Microprobe.

Chloe and Cara are trying to determine the emplacement pressure of the samples. The emplacement pressure should reveal information about water depth (or ice thickness) at the time of the eruption. To estimate emplacement pressure, they are using the volatile contents of the quenched glass rims of pillow lavas. Volatiles are lost during an eruption as a function of pressure; the smaller the pressure, the more degassing. So, by measuring the volatiles that are trapped in the glass, we can figure out how much pressure the glass experienced when it was formed.

Prior to the visit, Chloe and Cara selected the freshest glass chips, then polished them into ~100-200 micron-thick wafers. They analyzed them for H2O using the FTIR, making sure to avoid any vesicles, crystals, and fractures. They collected nearly 300 data points on 16 samples, so they have a thorough and extensive dataset to work with.

Chloe (left) is looking for an ideal measurement location on her glass chip. Cara (right) is operating the data collection and reduction software.

Chloe (left) is looking for an ideal measurement location on her glass chip. Cara (right) is operating the data collection and reduction software.

In order to calculate water depth (or ice thickness) from H2O concentration, we use a solubility model. The model requires additional inputs, including the glass composition, which we measured by electron microprobe.

After the glass chips were analyzed by FTIR, they were mounted on a glass slide for probe analysis.

After the glass chips were analyzed by FTIR, they were mounted on a glass slide for probe analysis.

The electron microprobe allows us to measure the composition of a very small (micron-scale) spot on the glass chip.

Chloe is examining her glass chips on the microprobe.

Chloe is examining her glass chips on the microprobe.

Cara uses the map to find her way around the slide. They analyzed several points on each chip, and will use those data to determine the glass composition.

Cara uses the map to find her way around the slide. They analyzed several points on each chip, and will use those data to determine the glass composition.

It was a short and intense visit, but we accomplished all of our goals. We especially would like to recognize Dr. Sheila Seaman for generously giving her time and energy. She made it all possible.

Keck GSA Abstracts

July 25th, 2016

Wooster, OH – The summer portion of the Keck Iceland project is officially over, but our research isn’t finished. We’ll be working together throughout the academic year and will synthesize our final results at the Keck Symposium at Wesleyan University in April 2017. Along the way, we’ll be presenting at GSA in Denver, Colorado. We wrote and submitted 4(!) abstracts based on our work this summer. Here they are:

Cara Lembo ('17, Amherst) stands next to a ridge-parallel dike intruding through a tephra cone. Helgafell, a hyalocastite edifice, is in the distance.

Cara Lembo (’17, Amherst) stands next to a ridge-parallel dike intruding through a tephra cone. Helgafell, a hyalocastite edifice, is in the distance.

NEW INSIGHTS ON THE FORMATION OF GLACIOVOLCANIC TINDAR RIDGES FROM DETAILED MAPPING OF UNDIRHLIDAR RIDGE, SW ICELAND

HEINEMAN, Rachel1, LEMBO, Cara2, ENGEN, Carl-Lars3, KOCHTITZKY, William4, WALLACE, Chloe5, ORDEN, Michelle4, THOMPSON, Anna C6, KUMPF, Benjamin5, EDWARDS, Benjamin R.4 and POLLOCK, Meagen5, (1)Department of Geology, Oberlin College, 52 West Lorain St, Oberlin, OH 44074, (2)Department of Geology, Amherst College, 11 Barrett Hill Dr, Amherst, MA 01002, (3)Department of Geology, Beloit College, 700 College Street, Box 777, Beloit, WI 53511, (4)Department of Earth Sciences, Dickinson College, 28 N. College Street, Carlisle, PA 17013, (5)Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, 944 College Mall, Wooster, OH 44691, (6)Department of Geology, Carleton College, One North College Street, Northfield, MN 55057, rheinema@oberlin.edu

Undirhlíðar ridge on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland is a glaciovolcanic tindar formed by fissure eruptions under ice. Previous work in two quarries along the ridge shows that this specific tindar has had a complex eruption history. Here we report new results from investigations along the length of the ridge (~3 km) between the quarries. We have identified aerially significant fragmental deposits and a potential vent area on the ridge’s eastern side. The newly mapped tephra deposits are dominated by lapilli- and ash-size grains that are palagonitized to some degree (~20-60%) but locally contain up to ~75% fresh glass. Basal units are tuff breccia to volcanic breccia with basaltic and rare gabbroic lithic clasts. Upper units are finely bedded with few large clasts and some glassy bombs. Locally, lapilli-tuff units show repetitive normally graded bedding and cross bedding. Measured bedding attitudes suggest that present exposures represent a moderately eroded tephra cone that was subsequently intruded by basaltic dikes. Extending north and south of the tephra cone, the upper surface of the ridge comprises pillow rubble with outcrops of massive basalts showing radial jointing and concentric vesicle patterns. All of the outcrops appear to be similar coarse-grained, olivine- and plagioclase-bearing basalts; ongoing petrographic and geochemical analysis will determine if the bodies represent “megapillows” or if they are related to intrusions that are present in both quarries. Along the western side of the ridge, lapilli tuff and/or volcaniclastic diamictites overlie pillow lava (or volcanic breccia made of pillow fragments) that is locally intruded by dikes. In northern gullies, at least two stratigraphically distinct units of pillow lava are present. In order to communicate the implications of our detailed research to a broad audience, we are constructing two “map tours” of the ridge: one that is centered on the abandoned and accessible Undirhlíðar quarry, and another that describes features along the upper part of the ridge between the quarries. Stops along the tour include exposures of dikes, pillow lavas, and erosional alcoves within the tephra cone. The goal of these tours is to compare similar units across the ridge and quarry and to show the general anatomy of a glaciovolcanic ridge.

Rachel Heineman ('17, Oberlin) stands next to a potential "megapillow."

Rachel Heineman (’17, Oberlin) stands next to a potential “megapillow.”

Cross section of a pillow lava, with Michelle Orden's ('17, Dickinson) head for scale.

Cross section of a pillow lava, with Michelle Orden’s (’17, Dickinson) head for scale.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLACIOVOLCANIC PILLOW LAVAS FROM UNDIRHLIDAR, SW ICELAND

THOMPSON, Anna C1, ORDEN, Michelle2, LEMBO, Cara3, WALLACE, Chloe4, KUMPF, Benjamin4, HEINEMAN, Rachel5, ENGEN, Carl-Lars6, EDWARDS, Ben2, POLLOCK, Meagen4 and KOCHTITZKY, William2, (1)Department of Geology, Carleton College, One North College Street, Northfield, MN 55057, (2)Department of Earth Sciences, Dickinson College, 28 N. College Street, Carlisle, PA 17013, (3)Department of Geology, Amherst College, 11 Barrett Hill Dr, Amherst, MA 01002, (4)Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, 944 College Mall, Wooster, OH 44691, (5)Department of Geology, Oberlin College, 52 West Lorain St, Oberlin, OH 44074, (6)Department of Geology, Beloit College, 700 College Street, Box 777, Beloit, WI 53511, thompsona@carleton.edu

Pillow lavas are one of the most abundant lava morphologies on Earth, but are relatively inaccessible because of their submarine or subglacial eruption environments. Our research location in a former rock quarry in southwest Iceland provides a unique opportunity to view cross-sections through well exposed pillow lavas on land. The quarry is located at the northern end of Undirhlíðar, which is a glaciovolcanic ridge on the Krisuvik fissure system, and exposes thousands of individual pillow lavas. This study uses detailed field and laboratory observations of vesicle distributions and jointing patterns to better constrain the mechanisms that control vesiculation, bubble transport, and cooling rates during emplacement of pillow lava. From detailed analysis of >40 exposed pillow cross sections, we have identified 7 fracture characteristics that make up a combination of fracture patterns within the pillow lavas. These characteristics include: short (<5 cm) fractures at the outer edge of a pillow, fractures within pillow cores, fractures between the core and the edge of a pillow, long fractures (up to 40 cm) that go through the entire pillow, ‘web’-like fractures, fractures that branch from other fractures, and curvilinear fractures that cut through bands of vesicles. The distributions of vesicles are more diverse, with at least 12 different patterns defined by characteristics including: concentric banding, moderately/highly vesicular cores, non-vesicular cores, and open cavities. We identified 6 vesicle pattern combinations in the field, and are using image analysis of nearly 50 field photographs to characterize the patterns. These characteristics will constrain physical modeling to better understand how variations in emplacement conditions (abrupt pressure changes, lava discharge rates, water infiltration along fractures) are recorded by the lavas. These pillow lavas are the only lasting record of a preexisting englacial lake presumably formed during the eruption of the lavas, so understanding the details of their textures may provide new insights into the hydrology of the enclosing ice (occurrence of syn-eruption jokulhlaups, efficiency of sub-ice drainage).
Chloe Wallace ('17, Wooster) samples glassy pillow lava rinds for geochemical analysis by XRF and FTIR.

Chloe Wallace (’17, Wooster) samples glassy pillow lava rinds for geochemical analysis by XRF and FTIR.

GEOCHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE MAGMATIC SYSTEM AND ERUPTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF A GLACIOVOLCANIC TINDAR RIDGE FROM UNDIRHLíðAR, SW ICELAND

WALLACE, Chloe1, KUMPF, Benjamin1, HEINEMAN, Rachel2, LEMBO, Cara3, ORDEN, Michelle4, THOMPSON, Anna C5, ENGEN, Carl-Lars6, KOCHTITZKY, William4, POLLOCK, Meagen1, EDWARDS, Ben4and HIATT, Alex1, (1)Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, 944 College Mall, Wooster, OH 44691, (2)Department of Geology, Oberlin College, 52 West Lorain St, Oberlin, OH 44074, (3)Department of Geology, Amherst College, 11 Barrett Hill Drive, Amherst, MA 01002, (4)Department of Earth Sciences, Dickinson College, 28 N. College Street, Carlisle, PA 17013, (5)Department of Geology, Carleton College, One North College Street, Northfield, MN 55057, (6)Department of Geology, Beloit College, 700 College Street, Box 777, Beloit, WI 53511, cwallace17@wooster.edu

Glaciovolcanic tindar ridges are landforms created by the eruption of magma through fissure swarms into ice. The cores of many of these ridges comprise basaltic pillow lava, so they serve an accessible analogue for effusive mid-oceanic ridge volcanism. Furthermore, similar landforms have been identified on Mars, and thus they may also serve as models for planetary volcanic eruptions. To better understand pillow formation and effusive glaciovolcanic eruptions, we are investigating Undirhlíðar ridge, a pillow-dominated tindar on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland. Our detailed mapping and sampling in two rock quarries along the ridge and in the ~3 km area between the quarries show that this specific tindar ridge has had a complex eruption history. In the northern quarry (Undirhlíðar), Pollock et al. (2014) demonstrated that at least two geochemically distinct magma batches have erupted. Further trace element and isotope analyses in the southern quarry (Vatnsskarð) suggest that the ridge is fed by a heterogeneous mantle source. Isotopic Pb data show a spatially systematic linear array, which is consistent with a heterogeneous mantle mixing between depleted and enriched endmembers. The occurrence of multiple magma batches in dikes and irregular intrusions suggests that these structures are important to transporting magma within the volcanic edifice. Glassy pillow rinds were sampled for volatile analysis by FTIR in order to determine how paleo-water pressures vary along the ridge. In Undirhlíðar quarry, paleo-water pressures decrease with stratigraphic height (1.6-0.7 MPa). In Vatnsskarð quarry, paleo-water pressures show evidence of two separate eruptions, where pressure values decrease with an increase in stratigraphic height from 1.1 to 0.7 MPa over ~30 m, at which point pressure resets to 1.1 MPa and continues to decrease with elevation. When comparing the two quarries, paleo-water pressures in the upper units of Undirhlíðar and all the units in Vatnsskarð have similar values (0.7-1.1 MPa), and these are lower than the basal units of Undirhlíðar (1.2-1.6 MPa). Overall, compositional variations correlate with stratigraphy and spatial distribution along axis, suggesting that glaciovolcanic eruptions and their resulting landforms show a higher level of complexity than previously thought.

A view looking NE into Undirhlidar quarry on a moody Icelandic day. (Photo Credit: Ben Edwards)

A view looking NE into Undirhlidar quarry on a moody Icelandic day. (Photo Credit: Ben Edwards)

3-D

MAPPING OF QUARRY WALLS TO CONSTRAIN THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A GLACIOVOLCANIC TINDAR, SW ICELAND

EDWARDS, Benjamin R.1, POLLOCK, Meagen2, KOCHTITZKY, William1 and ENGEN, Carl-Lars3, (1)Department of Earth Sciences, Dickinson College, 28 N. College Street, Carlisle, PA 17013, (2)Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, 944 College Mall, Wooster, OH 44691, (3)Department of Geology, Beloit College, 700 College Street, Box 777, Beloit, WI 53511, edwardsb@dickinson.edu

Documentation of the internal structures of volcanoes are critical for understanding how edifices are built over time, especially for glaciovolcanoes, which have rarely formed historically and are inaccessible during eruptions. We have been unraveling the internal structure of a complex glaciovolcanic ridge (tindar) in southwestern Iceland for the past 5 years in order to better understand the sequence of events that built the ridge. Undirhlidar ridge is ~5 km long, and has been dissected by two different aggregate mines along its axis. The northern mine (Undirhlidar quarry) is inactive and has walls up to 40 m in height that fully expose several critical stratigraphic relationships including multiple sequences of separate pillow lava flows, cross-cutting dikes that locally feed overlying pillow flows, and ridge parallel, continuous massive jointed basaltic units that may be the remnants of internal lava supply networks. The second quarry, ~3 km to the southwest (Vatnsskard quarry) is presently active and continually has new exposures. This quarry only penetrates halfway through the width of the ridge but has ~500 m of exposure along strike. It also has remnants of what appears to be the internal magma distributary system, and many components clearly show evidence that they were (and some still are) open lava tubes. While both quarries contain excellent exposures, many of the structures are difficult to safely access or are inaccessible due to mining activity. In order to overcome access issues, we have used Structure-from-Motion techniques to make 3-D maps of the quarry walls. A series of overlapping pictures were taken from points constrained with D-GPS using a Trimble GeoXH data logger and external antennae. The image locations with corrected positions were imported into Photoscan software to create a point cloud representative for each quarry and to derive a Digital Elevation Model with a reported vertical resolution of less than 1 m. Field testing of a preliminary, low resolution DEM shows that measurements of dyke widths on the DEM have errors of ~5% relative to measurements on the ground. Measurements made from the field-generated DEM will provide significantly better constraints on deposit thicknesses and volume estimates compared to traditional methods of estimating unit thicknesses on vertical faces.

Keck Iceland takes over the Wooster Lab

July 18th, 2016

Wooster, OH – Keck Iceland 2016 by the numbers:

  • Scientists in Keck Iceland: 10
  • Time in the field: 14 days
  • Pillows described in detail: >40
  • Samples collected: 71
  • Structural measurements made: 94
  • Photos taken: >2000
  • GPS data recorded: ridiculous

With a few extra charges for baggage fees, and a lot of help from the airport luggage carts, we successfully returned to Wooster to begin processing our samples and photos.

For the samples that we want to analyze for geochemistry, our first step is to powder them. Rachel Heineman ('17, Oberlin College) is cutting her samples on the rock saw.

For the samples that we want to analyze for geochemistry, our first step is to powder them. Rachel Heineman (’17, Oberlin College) is cutting her samples on the rock saw.

 

 

Cara Lembo ('17, Amherst College) is hammering her rocks into smaller pieces, preparing them for the shatterbox.

Cara Lembo (’17, Amherst College) is hammering her rocks into smaller pieces, preparing them for the shatterbox.

Every student has a project box in which they're keeping all of their materials. Rachel's is organized with thin section billets on the left, powders in the middle, and pieces to archive on the right.

Every student has a project box in which they’re keeping all of their materials. Rachel’s is organized with thin section billets on the left, powders in the middle, and pieces to archive on the right.

Some of the boxes look like this one, though. (Cara)

Some of the boxes look like this one, though. (Cara)

For samples that we want to analyze for trace elements, we prepare pressed powder pellets. Carl-Lars is showing Cara how to use the manual press to compress the powder in the die into a solid pellet.

For samples that we want to analyze for trace elements, we prepare pressed powder pellets. Carl-Lars is showing Cara how to use the manual press to compress the powder in the die into a solid pellet.

The result of all of our hard work is a desiccator full of samples ready for the XRF.

The result of all of our hard work is a desiccator full of samples ready for the XRF.

Another part of our work involves analyzing the compositions of volcanic glasses. Chloe Wallace ('17, Wooster) is picking out the freshest glass so that she can polish it for analysis by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and Electron Microprobe. The FTIR will allow us to measure H2O contents while the microprobe will give us chemical compositions over small spatial scales.

Another part of our work involves analyzing the compositions of volcanic glasses. Chloe Wallace (’17, Wooster) is picking out the freshest glass so that she can polish it for analysis by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and Electron Microprobe. The FTIR will allow us to measure H2O contents while the microprobe will give us chemical compositions over small spatial scales.

Lab work entails more than physical preparation of samples. Michelle Orden ('17, Dickinson College) and Anna Thompson ('17, Carleton College) are analyzing high-resolution photos of pillow lavas to understand the physical volcanology.

Lab work entails more than physical preparation of samples. Michelle Orden (’17, Dickinson College) and Anna Thompson (’17, Carleton College) are analyzing high-resolution photos of pillow lavas to understand the physical volcanology.

Michelle is identifying fracture patterns in her images.

Michelle is identifying fracture patterns in her images.

Anna and Ben Edwards (Dickinson College) are identifying vesicle patterns in pillow lavas.

Anna and Ben Edwards (Dickinson College) are identifying vesicle patterns in pillow lavas.

It's not all work, of course. We occasionally take breaks to play wiffle ball and frisbee on the quad.

It’s not all work, of course. We occasionally take breaks to play wiffle ball and frisbee on the quad.

Keck Students Doing Rock Hard Research

July 4th, 2016

Hafnarfjörður, Iceland – Guest Blogger Ben Kumpf (’18)

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Keck students doing recon on the volcanic ridge system they will be studying for their senior research projects. Dr. Ben Edwards on right giving one of his many field lectures on the petrology and physical geology of the area.

 

 

Lava bears were an unexpected encounter when climbing the ridge. These bears just happened to come out of the cave when Dr. Meagen Pollock was analyzing an outcrop of her favorite rock, none other than basalt.

Basalt here, basalt there, basalt everywhere. Long days in the field with endless sunlight wore out these tired lava bears. It seems they have found their favorite napping spot on a nice piece of moss.

 

 

 

 

 

A volcanic intrusion known as a dike sticks out of the surrounding lapilli tuff and tuff breccia units on top of the volcanic ridge system. Features like these are important to the project. The Keck students will be working to map in new features which are critical step in the process of updating the map of the ridge.

Ben Edwards and his field assistant Will Kochtitzky surveying a gully on the south side of the ridge as part of a mapping project to be done during the Keck experience in Iceland.

The Sulfur Saga

July 3rd, 2016

Hafnarfjörður, Iceland – Guest Blogger Ben Kumpf (’18)

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Sulfuric gas rising with steam from the water heated from a subsurface magmatic intrusion. If you ever wanted to smell a volcano this would be a great stop in Iceland, however you should bring some nose plugs because this  place will really take your breath away.

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Our slimy little friend also enjoying the pungent smell from the geothermal vents. It looks like he’s trying to catch some fresh air and maybe some TV with those Martian antennas.

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Part of the perks of coming to Iceland is definitely the breathtaking views you can get from just about anywhere on the island. This one in particular is from the top of the geothermal area at the end of a long field day.

A Journey to the Land of Basalt

July 2nd, 2016

Hafnarfjörður, Iceland – Guest Blogger Ben Kumpf (’18)

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One of the many “pillow talks” the Keck students were having as they were analyzing vesicle patterns and jointing of pillow basalt. Dr. Pollock’s expertise in MORB’s and pillows along the ridge was very helpful to further research in sub-glacial eruptions.

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A great view of one of the main field locations in Iceland, Undirhlíðar Quarry. This location gives the young researchers a cross sectional view of the ridge, shedding light on the stratigraphy of the Northern end of the ridge.

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Views.

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From left to right: Michelle Orden (Dickinson ’17) and Anna Thompson (Carleton ’17). One of the best exposures of the trip was a near vertical dike with a well preserved glassy contact.

 

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Who would expect to find a burger in the middle of a lava field?! A little crunchy and slightly vesiculated this sub-glacial burger is packed with flavor and phenocrysts.

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Vesicles and phenocrysts are great characteristics to help differentiate pillow units. The large white dots are plagioclase phenocrysts and the yellow to green dots are inclusions of olivine.

 

 

 

An Experience and an Upset

July 1st, 2016

Reykjavik, Iceland – Guest Blogger Ben Kumpf (’18)

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Carl-Lars Engen (Beloit ’17), among thousands of Islanders gathered in the capital, Reykjavik. Fans were cheering on the national team in the Euro Cup round of 16 against England. We were fortunate enough to see one of the biggest upsets of the year as a country with more volcanoes than professional soccer players defeated England 2-1.

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Wooster Alumni in Iceland

June 29th, 2016

Hafnarfjörður, Iceland – Guest Blogger Ben Kumpf (’18)

There is never a dull moment in the life of a Wooster geologist. This afternoon at the Lava Hostel, Keck students were surprised with a visit from Brian S. Carl, Wooster alumni class of ’87. Brian, now a Senior Production Geologist for Shell, stopped by after hearing word from Dr. Wilson that Wooster students were in the area doing research. Brian and his wife Karen were enjoying their their vacation in Iceland; we just missed visiting with their daughter, Alena, who is a current Wooster student.

From left to right, Wooster alumni Karen Carl, Brian Carl, Meagen Pollock, and Ben Kumpf.

From left to right, Wooster alumni Karen Carl, Brian Carl, Meagen Pollock, and Ben Kumpf.

Pillows, Trolls, and Dried Fish

June 26th, 2016

Hafnafjörður, Iceland – Cara Lembo (Amherst), official Keck Iceland 2016 Guest Blogger.

Greetings from rainy Iceland! After spending 4 full days in the field we are spending a rainy day inside discussing projects and compiling our data.

Inside the Lava Hostel on a rainy Sunday morning.

Inside the Lava Hostel on a rainy Sunday morning.

We spent our first day and a half in Iceland inside the Undirhlíðar quarry – an ideal place to observe cross sections of pillow lavas and other volcanic deposits.

Michelle Orden and Anna Thompson with a shelved lava tube in the Undirhlíðar quarry. The tube was likely refilled with the darker lava.

Michelle Orden (Dickinson) and Anna Thompson (Carleton) with a shelved lava tube in the Undirhlíðar quarry. The tube was likely refilled with the darker lava.

A pillow in the Undirhlíðar quarry.

A pillow in the Undirhlíðar quarry.

After getting a feel for many different types volcanic deposits in the quarry, we headed out to survey the ridge South of the quarry and observe these deposits “in the wild.”

 

Keck students hiking across the ridge.

Keck students hiking across the ridge.

We surveyed the ridge for the next day and a half. Highlights include discovering an unexpected tephra cone and learning how to tell the difference between goats and sheep. According to Ben you say, “Goaty, Goaty raise your tail!”

Students and Ben observing a diamict deposit on the ridge.

Students and Ben observing a diamict deposit on the ridge.

Once we surveyed the whole ridge, we started our mapping project with a gully on the southwest side of the ridge.

 

The gully we mapped. We discovered lots of fractured pillow lavas and dikes.

The gully we mapped. We discovered lots of fractured pillow lavas and dikes.

Michelle looking for trolls in the lava field below the gully. (The trolls we are looking for: http://vignette2.wikia.nocookie.net/p__/images/f/fa/The_Trolls_(Frozen).jpg/revision/latest?cb=20140116003401&path-prefix=protagonist)

Michelle looking for trolls in the lava field below the gully (the trolls we are looking for).

We’ve also sampled some local Icelandic cuisine such as Skyr, chocolate covered licorice and, to Dr. Pollock’s dismay, Harðfiskur (dried fish).

 

 

Ben with Harðfiskur. The dried fish has an incredibly potent smell that we cannot get out of the van.

Ben with Harðfiskur. The dried fish has an incredibly potent smell that we cannot get out of the van.

Overall it has been an exciting first week in the field. More to come as we continue working in the field and trying to adjust to the never-ending daylight.

 

Keck 2016 Arrives in Iceland

June 21st, 2016

Hafnafjörður, Iceland – What a fantastic day! Dr. Ben Edwards and I are leading a 6-student Keck trip to Iceland to study a glaciovolcanic ridge. It was a long travel day, but everyone (and their luggage) arrived safe and sound. No need to waste any time – soon after we set up camp, we headed to the field.

Ben Edwards (left) and the Keck students discuss their initial observations of pillow lavas and dikes.


A beautiful day welcomed us to our field site, but we couldn’t stay for too long because we had a birthday to celebrate.

Carl-Lars celebrated his birthday today during his first visit to Iceland, among his newfound Keck friends.

Today’s introduction was brief, but we’ll continue to post about our work and adventures over the next month.



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