Fossil of the Week: A thoroughly bored bivalve from Florida

The Fossil of the Week series is no longer weekly, and the gnarly specimen above is not actually a fossil, but the brand is so embedded in this blog that I’m still using it for occasional contributions.

Like the specimen posted last week, the above holey shell is a gift from my friend Al Curran, an emeritus professor at Smith College, He collected it on Anastasia Island, Florida, at the Matanzas Inlet. This location has very strong tidal exchanges and a mix of shells from the inter-coastal waterway and the open Atlantic Ocean.

The calcareous shell is from a bivalve, probably the common Mercenaria merenaria. The network of holes are borings of clionaid sponges, producing the trace fossil Entobia. This surviving remnant of this bivalve shell shows the incredible destructive power of bioerosion. The missing carbonate has been converted to microscopic chips, contributing to muddy carbonate sediments along the Florida coastline.

The wonderfully complex interior of these clionaid sponge borings.

Thanks again to Al Curran!

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Fossils of the Week: An encrusted and bored oyster from Florida

The Fossil of the Week series is no longer weekly, and the beautiful specimen above is not actually a fossil, but the brand is so embedded in this blog that I’m going to use it!

My friend Al Curran, an emeritus professor at Smith College, sent me this specimen he collected on Anastasia Island, Florida, at the Matanzas Inlet. This location has very strong tidal exchanges and a mix of shells from the inter-coastal waterway and the open Atlantic Ocean. The shell is from an oyster that most likely lived in the inlet, and the brown-orange encruster is a cheilostome bryozoan from the ocean proper. The abundant holes are borings of clionaid sponges, also fully marine in origin.

The underside of the oyster shows more of the bryozoan. It is heavily eroded, showing the sequential layers of its growth. Inside the cavity is a thin encrusting tube from a serpulid worm. These worm tubes are often found in cavities like this because they prefer cryptic spaces.

These are among my favorite types of organisms in the fossil record and the Recent. They are sclerobionts — organisms that live in or on hard substrates.

Thanks for this fun little community, Al. It is now part of Wooster’s paleoecology collections!

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A new paper on the Middle Jurassic paleoecology of southern Israel

I am delighted to announce that a new paper has appeared in the journal Lethaia on Middle Jurassic paleoecology in southern Israel. The senior author is Yael Leshno Afriat, and it was part of her PhD dissertation at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It is magnificent work, and I’m proud to have had a role in it. I spent thirteen delightful field seasons in Israel, and one of my dreams was that an Israeli graduate student would take on the diverse and complex fossil communities in the Middle Jurassic of the Negev. Yael did just that, completing her PhD last year and now publishing a major part of her dissertation. Beow are some excerpts.

Abstract— Middle Jurassic reefs are known and studied from a wide range of palaeolatitudes, yet southern Tethyan reefs have been relatively understudied. The high abundance of stromatoporoids in southern Tethyan reefs was suggested to indicate a tolerance to oligotrophic and overheated waters. Recent studies affirmed the longtime hypothesis of a warm equable climate in low palaeolatitudes during the Jurassic, which could account for the documented low diversities of low-latitudinal coral reefs during this time interval. We present a case study showing possible evidence for the suggested connection between heat stress, low coral diversity and the success of stromatoporoids in the southern Tethys. The study focuses on the unique erosional depression of Makhtesh Gadol, southern Israel, which preserves a continuous section of the Callovian (Middle Jurassic). It is rich in fossils of benthic macrofauna, especially patch reefs of corals and stromatoporoids. Our quantitative analysis shows for the first time: (1) a variation between a low- and high-diversity of coral patch reefs; and (2) a major shift from coral-dominated patch reefs in the lower part of the section to dominating stromatoporoids in the upper part. The faunal assemblage is used to reconstruct the depositional environment, indicating a shallowing upwards and increasing warmer waters. Patch reef beds showing low coral diversity are correlated with isotopic reconstructions from the same section, providing evidence for elevated water temperatures. The faunal transition from corals to stromatoporoids is correlated with a similar shift in Saudi Arabia, improving the regional correlation to the Arabian Carbonate Platform.

The two Yaels in the field. Yael Edelman-Furstenberg, Yael Leshno Afriat’s primary advisor, is on the left and Yael Leshno Ariat is on the right (along with my intruding shadow). We are standing at GPS location 055, where fossils from Subunit 51 of the Matmor Formation are abundant. Student Yael is presently surveying the Middle Jurassic sections in Makhtesh Gadol to find suitable places to do stratigraphic fossil collecting and quadrat measurements.

From Figure 1 of the paper: A, palaeogeography and sedimentology of the Arabian Platform in the Callovian (Middle Jurassic) showing Israel on the southeastern margin of the Tethys close to the palaeo-equator and a satellite view of Makhtesh Gadol.

From Figure 7 of the paper: Some characteristic corals. 1, Enallocoenia; GSI 3711. 2, Adelocoenia; GSI 3701. 3, Coral genus 10, a-c- lateral view; GSI 3709.

From Figure 7 of the paper: Some characteristic sponges. 6, stromatoporoids, a- aggregation of branching stromatoporoids in subunit 60-61, b- longitudinal thin section (subunit 60-61), c- branching stromatoporoid (subunit 60-61); GSI 3721. 7, longitudinal section of a massive stromatoporoid; GSI 3719. 8, terminal end of bulbous stromatoporoid; GSI 3718. 9, bulbous stromatoporoid surface with visible astrorhizae; GSI 3720.

Senior author Yael Leshno beginning her fieldwork in Makhtesh Gadol in 2014. Since then she got married, had two children, and finished her dissertation!

For me this paper represents the culmination of my fieldwork in Israel. I’m not sure when I will be able to return. I have wonderful memories of work there with adventurous Wooster students, Yoav Avni of the Geological Survey of Israel, and Yael, all of which is documented in this blog.


Leshno Afriat, Y., Lathuilière, B., Wilson, M.A., Rabinovich, R. and Edelman-Furstenberg, Y. 2023. Transition from coral to stromatoporoid patch reefs in Middle Jurassic equatorial warm waters. Lethaia, v. 56 (

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Review paper on the fossil record of symbiotic organisms in bryozoans has just been published

Olev Vinn, Andrej Ernst, and I have been working for years on various case studies of symbiotic endobionts (organisms that live within the skeletons of others) in the fossil record. This week our data-rich review paper has been published in the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Olev led us through the complex literature to produce this compendium and analysis. It contains some of my favorite concepts, like boring, bioclaustration and the Ordovician Bioerosion Revolution. Here is the abstract:

Trepostome bryozoans, with their thick calcitic skeletons, formed the largest number of symbiotic associations with endobionts in the Phanerozoic. Such associations were also formed by cystoporates, fenestrates, cyclostomes and cheilostomes. Bryozoans formed most of their symbiotic associations with endobiotic cnidarians, and markedly fewer with endobiotic worms and endobiotic lophophorates. The majority of Ordovician endobionts colonized borings in living bryozoans, or bored themselves into living hosts, during the Ordovician Bioerosion Revolution, which created new niches for the evolution of symbiotic relationships. The bryozoans likely became more selective and less symbiont-tolerant over the time. Assumed mutualistic endobionts were more common than likely parasites in Phanerozoic bryozoans. The decrease in diversity of parasitic associations and the increase in the number of mutualistic associations from the Ordovician to Devonian can be explained by the evolution of possible bryozoan defense mechanisms likely in the form of chemical secretions. Paleozoic endobiont faunas were more diverse than their Mesozoic and Cenozoic counterparts because of endobiont-friendly Paleozoic trepostomes, and because of the peak in diversity of bryozoans with massive colonies in the early and middle Paleozoic.

Bryozoans are excellent subjects for the study of symbiosis over time because they usually have thick skeletons of stable calcite that record many of the critters that lived on and in their colonies. This is especially true in the Paleozoic. Within the Paleozoic the Ordovician had by far the most recorded symbiotic relationships, which is not surprising considering the abundance of bryozoans then.

Caption for the top image, which is from Figure 4 of the paper: Ordovician symbiotic endobionts. A, Sanctum laurentiensis in Batostoma? sp. with opening at the typical bifurcation point from the Decorah Formation (Ordovician: Mohawkian) of Minnesota (modified from Erickson, 2020). B, Anoigmaichnus zapalskii in Mesotrypa expressa from Kullaaru ditch, Oandu Stage (Katian) northern Estonia (GIT 770–39). C, Kuckerichnus kirsimaei in Diplotrypa sp. from Kohtal-Järve, Kukruse Stage (Sandbian), northern Estonia (TUG 72–826-2). D, Bioclaustration in Orbiramus sp. from the Fenhsiang Formation (Tremadocian), China (Modified from Ma et al., 2020, Fig. 7B).

This was a very satisfying project because it summarizes two decades of our work and, of course, that of many others. It is also, by the way, a product of the recent pandemic. We all spent far more time than usual writing in our offices and labs during 2020-2022. This is why I’m posting an unusual number of new papers during the first few months of 2023.


Vinn, O., Wilson, M.A. and Ernst, A. 2023. Macroscopic symbiotic endobionts in Phanerozoic bryozoans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 615: 111453.

[Click the link for a free pdf for the next 50 days; after that you can ask me for a copy.]

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A new paper on symbiosis between brachiopods and bryozoans in the Late Ordovician of Estonia

I’m pleased to announce another paper has appeared from our ongoing Estonian-German-American collaboration on symbiosis in the fossil record. The beautiful specimen above is the trepostome bryozoan Esthoniopora subsphaerica growing around a bioclaustration, forming a distinctive tube (Katian, Rakvere, northern Estonia; TUG 1824-8). Some alert Wooster students and alumni will remember similar features in trepostome bryozoans from the Cincinnatian in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky.

The abstract —

Valves of the strophomenid brachiopod Sowerbyella tenera are often encrusted by trepostome bryozoan colonies in the lower Katian of Estonia. In some cases, the encrustation of Sowerbyella likely took place syn vivo. A single Sowerbyella tenera contains three Palaeosabella prisca borings that were bored post mortem into the interface between the encrusting trepostome colony and the ventral valve of Sowerbyella. The encrusting trepostome colonies contain a large bioclaustration in a tubular outgrowth of the bryozoan colony, Anoigmaichnus-like bioclaustrations, Kuckerichnus-like bioclaustrations, A. zapalskii, A. bretti, and a symbiotic conulariid. The bioclaustrated soft-bodied organisms and the conulariid colonized living bryozoans.

It is a pleasure as always to work with this happy team led by the indefatigable Olev Vinn of the University of Tartu, Estonia.


Vinn. O., Ernst, A., Wilson, M.A., Tinn, O., Isakar, M. and Toom, U. 2023. Symbiosis in brachiopods and brachiopod-attached trepostome bryozoans from the Katian of Estonia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 307/1: 41-50.

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The delightful Fall 2022 Paleoecology class at Wooster

I was so impressed with the post by Professor Greg Wiles about his Fall 2022 Geomorphology class that I decided to highlight the Fall 2022 Paleoecology class as well. It was a great group of students, and we did an extraordinary amount of scholarly work: 26 quizzes, two tests, one final exam, two essays, a research paper, a research presentation, an extensive field project, and three other lab reports. They flourished and in turn through their research taught me quite a bit about many paleoecology topics. We were assisted throughout by our brilliant, patient, tireless, cheerful Teaching Assistant Brianna Lyman.

Early in the course we had a day-long field trip to southeastern Indiana (locality C/W-148 near Richmond) described in an earlier post. The goal was for each student to make a large collection of fossils from the upper Whitewater Formation (Upper Ordovician) that would be the raw material for a detailed paleoecological report due at the end of the semester. Nick Wiesenberg, our geological technician, was invaluable in the planning and successful completion of this little expedition.

These are the filled sample bags from the field trip, one for each student.

The next step was to wash the specimens for further analysis.

One of the student trays with typical specimens from the trip, including brachiopods, bryozoans, bivalves, gastropods, corals, cephalopods, monoplacophorans, and a few rare trilobites. There were also trace fossils, including numerous borings in the calcitic shells.

This is a completed tray at the end of the semester. Specimens are cleaned, labeled, and identified. Each student made at least two acetate peels, one from a rugose coral and the other from a bryozoan. Each student then wrote a report on the taxonomy, taphonomy, and paleoecology of their collection, supplementing their observations with the discoveries and ideas of their classmates. It was a nice mix of individual research and group discussions.

Another lab exercise detailed the ontogeny of the rugose coral Grewingkia canadensis from the same field site. We clearly have enough specimens for each student to measure the dimensions of numerous corals. They then used a statistical package (Past4) to make various graphs for interpretations.

We also had a foraminiferan “picking” exercise. Each student had a vial of sediment from a drill hole in the Gulf of Mexico (Frio Formation, Oligocene). They then collected foraminiferan tests with a thin wet brush and placed them on slide covered with water-soluble glue.

The process required careful hand-eye coordination to not lose the little critters in the transfer from sediment to tray!

This image shows a sediment vial, a picking brush, and a completed slide. Each number on the slide has a tiny specimen glued by it. The students then identified the foraminiferans and assessed the likely depth that the benthic forms lived.

The final exercise involved identifying shark teeth from the Cretaceous Menuha Formation of southern Israel. We have a large collection of these teeth from the Independent Study thesis of Andrew Retzler (’11). We used Retzler et al. (2013) as our guide for identification of these sharks and their paleoecological context.

I had an excellent time in this course with these creative, hard-working, resilient, happy students.

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Local Geomorphology and What We Learned

This is a post outlining some of the work we did in Wooster’s class in Geomorphology. One of the early labs was Browns Lake Bog and the Soil Catena.

The landforms in the area are spectacular – here is a kame, a photo taken  as we ventured down into the bog.

The group shares a light moment before the 20+ species of mosquitos descended on them in the forest.

The soils from the top of the kame to the base varied more than the group predicted.

We also sampled soils just east of the campus golf course.

Nick and Jerry in the soil pit measuring magnetic susceptibility as Des records the data.

The C-horizon on the left is a sandy, silt gravel – the B-horizon in the middle is blocky loam and the A is a more brown silty material.

The team coring an old growth (300+ year) tree growing on top of the soil site. The landform is a kame terrace that has likely been weathering in place for the last 14,000 years with additional windblown silt being added (or removed) from time to time during the Holocene.

At Zollinger’s Sand and Gravel – posing at the base of the section which is Mississippian bedrock. A big thank you to the Zollinger family for allowing us to work here and for showing us around.

This side of the pit is still being mined, whereas other portions serve as land fill. We learned that lodgement till can be fractured and that it also can be mined and serve as a landfill liner.

On the way back to campus we stopped at the artesian spring near the Wayne County Airport.

Of course not class would be complete without a trip to Spangler. Here the group is standing inf ront of one of the unconformities, which is composed of a lodgement till overlain by fluvial and alluvial sediments.  The interface of these units is where the geochmistry is just right to generate concretions.

The increasingly greater precipitation events are moving larger and large block of bedrock. Here the Wooster Shale is being excavated by 1-2 inch storm events. Our hypothesis is that erosion rates over the last few decades are unprecedented perhaps over much of the Holocene.
Big blocks are moved routinely – they are plucked out by the stream along planes of weakness (fractures). Note how the shales break up readily. A block like those above will be mud again in a matter of months. Swelling clays and strong wetting and drying does the job.

Here is a series of debris flows (gray sediment) – we obtained two radiocarbon ages that show intervals of mass movements about 2.5 ka, these are dates on charcoal that may be from fires used in land management by native Americans at the time.

Stream gaging along Apple Creek. The group gets some hand-on experience with the equipment and puzzles over the various facies of a fining upward fluvial sequence.

Nick and Tyrell take turns in the deep end.

Jack giving the group the rundown on riparian vegetation.

As it turn out the floods here get pretty high, this tree was scarred when a log (or a washing machine) floated by during a high flow.


The class at Fern Valley standing in front of Columbia Gas’ well-head for the natural gas storage field. The group was investigating the possibility that mass movements at the site might impact the infrastructure and pipelines in the area.

The slump block at Fern Valley is clearly seen from above. It is a series of glacial ice-contact stratified drift deposits overlain by a thick (40+ foot) layer of varved lacustrine clays. What you see in the woods is a major 2-3 meter scarp (normal fault) as the block descends into the valley.

The class at Fern Valley. A big thank you Nick Wiesenberg for arranging the logistic for the trips. We would also like to thank bus drivers Mark Livengood and Fred Potter for getting us to and from the sites safely. A special thanks to Fred who will be retiring soon – we appreciate your expertise and knowledge of the Wooster area.

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Paleoecology field trip to the Upper Ordovician of eastern Indiana: Haven’t done this for awhile!

Richmond, Indiana — Today Nick Wiesenberg (our invaluable geological technician), Brianna Lyman (my excellent Teaching Assistant), and I took the 15 students in the Paleoecology course to the fossiliferous Upper Ordovician of eastern Indiana (upper Whitewater Formation). It’s a location (C/W-148) that I’ve taken students to many times, but not since 2019 because of … you guessed it … pandemic. We had a wonderful time collecting bags of specimens for exercises and reports this semester. It was a wonderful day, even if it was seven hours of driving for one hour of fieldwork!

This is a typical view of the fossils available here in abundance. Note the bryoimmurations!

Bags of fossil treasure waiting to be opened in lab. First step will be washing and sorting. This is going to take awhile!

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Who knew that crinoids could be boring? A possible bioeroding crinoid attachment structure from the early Silurian of Estonia (new paper)

Our hard-working and observant Estonian colleagues (Olev Vinn and Ursula Toom) recently made a remarkable discovery among Estonian early Silurian fossils: an attachment structure of a stalked crinoid that apparently bioeroded its way into a calcitic stromatoporoid skeleton.

There’s a lot packed into that opening sentence. (And you’ve noticed that “remarkable” is a relative term depending on your interests!) For orientation, a crinoid is an arm-bearing, filter-feeding marine echinoderm with a very long evolutionary history to the present day. They have skeletons of calcite typically consisting of a flower-like crown with feeding appendages, a stem (or stalk) made of stacked disks, and some sort of holdfast structure. That holdfast can be quite variable, from roots in muddy sediments to thick disks cemented to hard substrates.

Generalized diagram of a crinoid drawn by our coauthor Bill Ausich.

Bioerosion is the biological erosion of a hard substrate by either mechanical means (grinding, rasping, scraping, biting, drilling) or chemical (such as acidic dissolution) producing structures like borings, grooves, drillholes, etc. Until this work, no crinoids living or extinct have been known to bioerode their substrates. Here, though, as you can see in the top image, we appear to have a crinoid that has done just that way back in the Silurian.

The top image is of a thin-section cut through a crinoid holdfast attached to a stromatoporoid, which is a kind of calcareous sponge with a dense, layered skeleton of calcite. The whitish vertical portion is the crinoid stem partially buried in sediment. The yellow arrows show the radices (essentially “roots”) of the crinoid penetrating into the stromatoporoid skeleton, cutting through its topmost layers. It is clear that the crinoid was not simply embedded in the skeleton by stromatoporoid growth — the radices cut through the layers. This crinoid bored into the stromatoporoid (probably chemically) and held on tenaciously. Remarkable. The first indication that a crinoid could do this sort of thing.

Thus far it is only one specimen, so there is the inevitable question mark in the title of this paper. We put it out there as a first report hoping that other such cases may be found. Or, of course, someone could show that our interpretation is not correct.

I love these paleoecological stories! Thank you again to our Estonian friends and colleagues Olev Vinn and Ursula Toom. Bill Ausich and I treasure our friendship and collaboration with them.

For the record, this is the location of the boring crinoid find (from the paper).

And this is the stratigraphy (from the paper).


Vinn, O., Ausich, W.I., Wilson, M.A. and Toom, U. 2022. Did stalked echinoderms bioerode calcareous substrates? A possible boring crinoid attachment structure in a stromatoporoid from the early Silurian (Telychian) of Estonia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift (

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Ten Days in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

After spending a day in Juneau gearing up, we flew over to Gustavus, Alaska and then got a ride to Bartlett Cove in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. We then rented kayaks and headed into Glacier Bay.

Shortly after being dropped off by the Day Boat at Mount Wright, the team (left to right, Jacob Hassan, Nick Wiesenberg, Jack Whitehouse and Greg Wiles) packed two kayaks and headed for the East Arm (Muir Inlet) of Glacier Bay. The primary objective of this trip is to recover wood that will allow the team to bridge a gap in a 2,000 year long tree-ring record. The age of the wood needs to be about 2000 years old. We know from previous studies where we need to go to optimize our chances of finding that age wood.

Jack and Nick enthusiastic to get paddling north into Muir Inlet (aka the East Arm).

Much of the work was done by examining stream cuts through various glacial and fluvial landforms and working our way up and down outwash fans and streams in the area.

Jacob standing on the bank of a part meandering – part braided stream. He is preparing to crash the brush on the right to make headway.

Jack along the shore of Adams Inlet is optimistic that this section of a fan and delta may contain wood needed for his thesis.

Nick directing the sample collection of a large sitka spruce – likely run over by ice about 1500 years ago during a cold time now known as the LALIA (Late Archaic Little Ice Age). It may be that this cool interval was forced, in part, by major volcanic eruptions and various associate feedbacks in the mid 500s CE.

The group taking a well-deserved rest after a morning of exploring a fan.

One of key deposits that the team investigated were extensive Gilbert type deltas that overlie flooding surfaces from lakes. The lakes (in this case Adams Lake) were formed about 1500 years ago when glaciers in the West Arm advanced damming up the East Arm of Glacier Bay. These lakes preserved forests of that age, and now with ice retreat, isostatic uplift, and erosion the lake are gone and the glaciolacustrine sediment sequences are being eroded away liberating the logs.

This is the same photo – a closeup showing the gray lacustrine clays and silts that are varved (to the right of Jack) and the dipping sands of the foresets overlying the lake clays. Beneath the clays is the flooding horizon that preserved the wood.

Descending a delta from above – here Jacob is walking down the delta foresets into the paleobasin.

The sampling team – yes we have a permit with the National Park Service for chainsaw use. Nick is a chainsaw expert and is able to minimize the saws impact and take high quality samples.

One of the more demanding legs of the trip was thrashing our way up the Casement Glacier outwash plain. We started from its delta in Adams Inlet and headed north with the hopes of setting a camp 8 or so miles from the sea to sample wood at the glacier and on its outwash. Unfortunately, the massive outwash river was pegged along the west side of the valley making travel through the brush difficult. We spent one day sampling washed out logs in the hopes that the complex glacial and fluvial history of the valley might preserve the logs in the age range that we sought. It was slightly miserable with poor weather as well.

Jacob managed to look optimistic as he takes an increment core from a log on the Casement Fan.

Near the delta of Casement River the tidal effects are evident. Here the ebbing tide with a fluvial, unidirectional rippled surface reworks the intertidal mudcracks. Note too, the bubbles evident along the hexagonal boundaries of the mudcracks.

We give a big shout out to Glacier Bay Sea Kayaks for their help with logistics and equipment. These well-maintained boats are necessary for this work as most of the waters we worked in were non-motorized water,  meaning no motor boats.

Here is a shot of the two double kayaks at our Nunatak Fan camp in Muir Inlet. Nick anticipated all the gear and food we would need for the trip and carefully did the planning to ensure that we could fit all we needed in these two boats for the entire 10 days. He also made sure that it would stay dry in the often very wet conditions in this coastal rainforest setting.

The group plans a launch out of one camp on the way to the next. Note the head nets on all the crew. Bugs were an issue and head nets were worn frequently.

A view looking west from he Nunatak camp toward Muir Inlet.

Jack scoped out this barnacle encrusted log – the core was excellent and may be part of the gap-filling ring – width series.

Camped at Muir Point in Muir Inlet. The glacier was here at this fan in 1880 when John Muir has his cabin close to our camp. Only the stone chimney is left to the cabin now and it is well hidden in a nearby forest. Here the group enjoys a nice evening in the intertidal burning driftwood from the beach.

At Muir Point, Nick picked a pile of strawberries that were just right in terms of ripeness and sweetness.

For lunch we had wraps of strawberries, honey peanut butter and nuts. Nick outdid himself with the meal planning.

This is a Bear Highway on top of a storm berm. Each time a bear passes over the berm it steps in the same spots keeping the moss from growing in the footprints.

Nick finding a creative way of crossing the stream in search of the wood.

At the end of the 10 days we were picked up by the day boat and completed our time in Glacier Bay with a trip up the West Arm. The day was brilliant and sunny and we met guides from Alaska Mountain Guides and shared stories of adventures in Alaska.

A sea star revealed itself as we waited at low-tide for the Day Boat.

The group onboard the Day Boat headed back to Gustavus via the West Arm.

Flying back to Juneau a view of the Chilkat Mountains.

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