A mission in the Cretaceous of southern Israel

April 9th, 2014

Wadi Mishar viewMITZPE RAMON, ISRAEL–Today Yoav and I set out to solve a mapping dilemma concerning the boundaries of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) En Yorqe’am Formation in the Negev and, eventually, the Judean Desert to the north. It involved a bumpy ride deep into some of the most beautiful areas of the country, and it produced all sorts of delicious paleontological and sedimentological mysteries. I’ll talk more about this trip in later entires. Since it was 12 hours and I get up at 4:00 a.m. tomorrow, this is a truncated entry!

The setting is the stratigraphy of the En Yorqe’am and its bounding units: the Hevyon Formation below and the Zafit Formation above. Our job was to examine the contacts between these units and help come up with consistent definitions that can be used throughout the region. Right now there is considerable fuzziness as to where each formation begins and ends. Above is a labeled image showing the magnificent outcrop in Wadi Mishar (taken from our studied section at N 30.54899°, E 34.98843°).

Oysters En Yorqeam 040914In the process of sharpening the definition of the En Yorqe’am, we found some magnificent fossils. There are many paleontological and sedimentological projects possible in this unit. Oysters dominate the En Yorqe’am in most places we visited. Above is a close view of one outcrop (at N 30.65788°, E 35.08764°; Nahal Neqarot) showing that the sediment is almost entirely oyster. The shells are often beautifully bored, but strangely there are virtually no encrusters.

Stromatoporoid En Yorqeam 040914To our surprise, we found these large roundish objects that look very much like stromatoporoids (at N 30.65788°, E 35.08764°). The lack visible mamelons (or corallites, for that matter), but internally they appear to show the typical laminations and pillars of these calcareous sponges. I’ve never seen them in the Cretaceous before, which is at the end of their range. I could be wrong and these fossils are odd altered corals. Only cutting and polishing will tell.

Terebratulids En Yorqeam 040914Also unexpected was the prevalence of brachiopods in parts of the En Yorqe’am (at N 30.65788°, E 35.08764°). These are articulated terebratulid brachiopods. They look very Jurassic in their appearance, but here they are in the Upper Cretaceous.

I’m looking forward to working with Wooster students on these outcrops next year! More on the En Yorqe’am later this week.

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