On the rails heading north. Way north.

June 17th, 2015

Scarborough station 061715SCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 17) — It is my turn to leave Scarborough. Mae and Meredith went south to London and then on to Paris yesterday. I’m heading north today into Scotland for a Larwood Symposium (run by the International Bryozoology Association) in Thurso and later Stromness.

Screen Shot 2015-06-24 at 8.36.16 PMThe trip is nearly 12 hours long by train, with connections in York, Edinburgh, and Inverness. I’m getting good use out of my BritRail Pass. I hope to see much through my windows as we cross through Lowland Scotland into the Highlands and eventually the north coast. Thurso is the most northerly station in the British rail system.

Scarborough benchDid you know the world’s longest bench is in the Scarborough Rail Station?

Travel days

June 16th, 2015

1 Mae Meredith waiting 061615SCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 16, 2015) — Team Yorkshire split up this morning. Mae Kemsley (’16) and Meredith Mann (’16) packed up very efficiently and took a train to London via York. There plan is to see some London sights and then take a night train to Paris, where they will spend a few days.

2 Mae Meredith on train 061615It is always a sweet time to see healthy and happy students at the end of the fieldwork heading off on their own adventures. Bittersweet, though, because we had such a great time and I have one more day in Scarborough.

3 Scarborough station 061615This is the small Scarborough train station. A set of tracks ends here, so there is only one way in and out.

4 Train to York 061615The train that took Mae and Meredith out of Scarborough. I will be on the same train tomorrow as I start a 14-hour journey to Thurso, Scotland, via York, Edinburgh and Inverness.

5 Scarborough Westborough StreetFor the rest of my lonely day, I explored Scarborough. This is Westborough Street with its modern shops and restaurants. Team Yorkshire ate a lot of fish and chips in this neighborhood.

6 Scarborough view 061615Merchants Street is an older part of Scarborough. You can see the walls of Scarborough Castle on the skyline.

7 Grand Hotel 585 061615Finally, one last view of the Grand Hotel, a Victorian building that has a long history, including being shelled by the Germans in 1914. Our hotel was across the street and far less fancy. This afternoon I sat in its lobby and read a book to escape the cold and clammy weather that descended on the city.

Team Yorkshire finishes its fieldwork

June 15th, 2015

1 Speeton Clay at Reighton Sands 061515SCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 15, 2015) — It is difficult to believe that yesterday was so cold and wet. Today was beautiful on the Yorkshire Coast. Mae Kemsley (’16), Meredith Mann (’16) and I traveled to Reighton Sands for one last look through Mae’s outcrops. The tide was very low and the sunshine abundant, so we took lots of images and collected another bag of fossils. Above is the Speeton Clay (Lower Cretaceous). It rarely looks so good in photographs.

2 Morning commute 061515A scene from our morning commute from Scarborough. We like sitting in the top front of the double-decker bus.

3 SS Laura boilersThe tide was low enough to expose the pair of boilers from the SS Laura. You may recall this Austro-Hungarian cargo ship ran aground here on November 21, 1897. These heavy and resistant boilers have served as coastal landmarks for over a century.

4 Mussels Barnacles on boilersThe SS Laura boilers are also a significant hard substrate for attaching mussels and barnacles.

5 Flamborough Head 061515The white chalk cliffs of northern Flamborough Head were especially beautiful today. I wish there was a way to record the sounds of thousands of circling seabirds.

6 Red Chalk outcrop 061515We visited an outcrop of the Red Chalk (Hunstanton Formation, Lower-Upper Cretaceous) one last tme to collect more belemnites for Mae’s future analytical work.

7 Red Chalk fossils 061515We found quite a few Neohibolites, along with a coiled serpulid or two.

8 Speeton belemnites in placeThen it was back to the gray Speeton Clay. After yesterday’s rain, the belemnites seemed very easy to find. Today we were after belemnites that had borings and/or encrusters.

9 Mae Meredith frisbee SpeetonMae and Meredith took advantage of the beach to toss a frisbee around. They are both members of Wooster’s superb Ultimate Frisbee team.

10 Speeton sand patterns IIWe walked the long arc of Filey Bay to Filey. I was fascinated with the patterns in the sand left by the receding tide.

11 Speeton sand patterns IThose same sand patterns with a stone producing interference.

12 Filey 061515The seaside portion of Filey, viewed from the south.

13 Last view of Filey BriggAnd finally a view of Filey Brigg from Filey. We were very pleased to have our last field day such a pleasant one. We hope we’ve prepared the way for future Wooster Independent Study projects in this beautiful part of the world.

Last day of fieldwork on Filey Brigg in Yorkshire

June 14th, 2015

1 Mae Meredith Passage Beds 061415SCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 14, 2015) — It was a drizzly, breezy, cold day on the outcrops, but Team Yorkshire finished measuring and collecting for Meredith Mann’s project on the Passage Beds Member of the Coralline Oolite Formation (Upper Jurassic, Oxfordian) exposed on the north side of Filey Brigg, a spit of rock between Scarborough and Filey. In the posed but useful image above, Meredith stands at the base of the Passage Beds, and Mae holds a meter stick pointing to the top, with the cross-bar on the Thalassinoides unit at the base of the Hambleton Oolite.

2 Annotated Passage Beds 061415We designated five subsidiary units within the Passage Beds, as shown above. The rocks below belong to the Saintoft Member of the Lower Calcareous Grit Formation; the rocks above are the Hambleton Oolite (Lower Leaf) Member of the Coralline Oolite. Note how more ragged this exposure is because it directly faces the sea. The erosion better exposes the stratigraphy and fossils. It also means when we work here we are more subject to the elements.

3 Low tide access Filey BriggThis location on the north side of Filey Brigg is only accessible at low tide across slick algal-encrusted rocks. The angry sea looms to the right.

4 Bouldery walkWe have to climb over these boulders which are piled against a cliff face.

5 High tide escape ladderSince this area is flooded at high tide, if you wait too long to hike back the only escape from the raging North Sea is up this emergency ladder. I kept my eye on the ocean behind us!

6 Splashy Filey Brigg 061415The remorseless sea pounding away at Filey Brigg during a rising tide. I hate rising tides.

7 Mae Meredith working 061415Meredith and Mae at work collecting rock samples and fossils. We are somewhat protected here from the rain by the overhanging Hambleton Oolite. The wind still blew in plenty of water from sea and sky.

8 Thalassinoides in Unit 1An alcove in Unit 1 of the Passage Beds with galleries of the trace fossil Thalassinoides.

9 Crossbedding Unit 3Unit 3 of the Passage Beds shows cross-bedding, which is consistent with its origin as sediments washed shoreward during storms.

10 Unit 1 fossils 061415A cluster of oysters and pectinid bivalves in Unit 1 of the Passage Beds.

11 Mae Meredith Filey BriggWe celebrated completion of our fieldwork by walking as far out on Filey Brigg as we could! Miserable weather, but a dramatic setting! And no one broke a leg on the boulders or was trapped by the high tide.

Rain delay in Yorkshire. Time for sample management.

June 13th, 2015

Sample management 061315SCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 13, 2015) — Our good fortune with the weather finally ended with a steady downpour this morning. Since it was during an advantageous tide, and I didn’t want us slipping around on wet intertidal boulders at Filey Brigg, we cancelled the day’s fieldwork. As generations of Wooster paleontologists know, this gives us time for Sample Management. We went through all that we collected, washed each fossil in my bathroom sink, and dried the lot on the hotel towels so kindly provided to us. It was the first time I got a good luck at many of the specimens the students collected, so it was rather fun. We then rebagged and labelled everything for the trip back home. Mae and Meredith have put together a nice collection for their studies. We have two more days of fieldwork to finish collecting for Meredith’s project.

Battle of Flamborough Head (September 23, 1779)

June 13th, 2015

Flamborough HeadMost of our work as Team Yorkshire this month has been in Filey Bay on the northeastern coast of England. When we look south, as above, we see the northern extent of the famous Cretaceous chalk cliffs that extend far into the south of the country along the Channel coast. This point of chalk that we see jutting into the North Sea is Flamborough Head. If we were here on September 23, 1779, we would have seen here a dramatic naval battle between the Royal Navy and the earliest ships of the Revolutionary United States.

Flamborough Google MapFor orientation, you see Scarborough at the top of this Google map, and then Filey down the coast (with Filey Brigg visible as a thin finger of rock diving into the sea). The top image was taken on the coast at Reighton Gap looking south.

Gilkerson 1In these waters on that September day, Commodore John Paul Jones in the USS Bonhomme Richard (on the right) met Captain Richard Pearson of the HMS Serapis. The painting is by William Gilkerson and is displayed in the US Naval Academy Museum. The battle was a complicated bit of seamanship on both sides, and both sides could claim victory. Overall, though, it was an astounding feat of American arms to have engaged the world’s largest and effective navy in its home waters. The story of the battle is best told by J. Scott Harmon on this website.

Battle map FlamboroughThe initial engagement of the HMS Serapis and USS Bonhomme Richard north of Flamborough Head. (From the US Naval Academy. Go there for a nice set of map animations.)

Richard Willis paintingThis part of the world has seen much dramatic military history, from the Romans to the Germans. We find this battle particularly moving because of the role of the new United States asserting its independence. (Painting by Richard Willis.)

Taking a break to see York

June 12th, 2015

1 Mae Meredith SW York MinsterSCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 12, 2015) — Team Yorkshire went on a holiday today with a visit to York, only a short train ride inland from Scarborough. We needed a break, and in any case the tides were not in our favor at Meredith’s Independent Study field site. It was another extraordinarily warm, clear and dry day. (Unlike the cold, foggy and damp Scarborough we returned to in the evening.)

Above Meredith and Mae stand in front of the southwestern portion of the iconic York Minster.

2 Mae Meredith York StreetHere we are walking down a York street. The city felt very large and busy after our days in Scarborough.

3 River Ouse in York from Skeldergate Bridge 585The River Ouse in York from Skeldergate Bridge. This river divides the city and has been an important transportation and trade route for centuries.

4 Constantine 061215This statue of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great is a monument to his accession to the office in 306 CE while in York, then known as Eboracum.

We spent time at the Viking archaeological center (Jorvik) and the York Castle Museum before taking the train back “home” to Scarborough. It was a great cultural excursion as we prepare for our last days of fieldwork.

Museum work and a castle visit in Scarborough

June 11th, 2015

1 Scarborough museum workSCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 11, 2015) — It is always useful when doing paleontological fieldwork to visit the local museum to see what specimens they’ve curated over the years. Today Team Yorkshire explored the collections at the Scarborough Museums Trust Woodend storage facility, courtesy of Jennifer Dunne, Collections Manager. Above are Mae Kemsley (’16) and Meredith Mann (’16) examining boxes of specimens from the Speeton Clay and Coralline Oolite, the two units they’re working with.

2 Peltoceras williamsoniThis specimen of the ammonite Peltoceras williamsoni is an example of the kind of material we find in museum collections. It comes from the Passage Beds of the Coralline Oolite — Meredith’s unit. We are not likely to come across such a well-preserved fossil in our short interval of fieldwork. This is not the first Peltoceras in this blog.

3 Peltoceras noteThis note that accompanied the above specimen is from J.K. Wright, an expert with these fossils.

4 Scarborough castle keepAfter our museum work, we took an opportunity to visit Scarborough Castle. (We couldn’t do more fieldwork this afternoon because of the high tides.) This is a spectacular place with over 3000 years of history. It was the site of settlements in about 800 BCE and 500 BCE, and then a Roman signalling station around 370 CE. The castle itself dates back to the 12th Century. In 1645 it was the subject of a long Civil War siege, with Parliamentarians on the outside shelling Royalists on the inside. (The cannonades broke the above castle keep in half.) In December 1914, German battleships fired over 500 shells into it.

5 Team Yorkshire castle 061115Mae and Meredith with the castle keep in the background. Note the fantastic weather!

6 St Marys chapel castleThe remains of St. Mary’s Chapel within the castle walls were built on the site of the Roman signals station. Resident of the castle took shelter here during the 1914 German bombardment.

7 Scarborough from castleA view of Scarborough from the castle walls. We could see all of our field areas along the coast from this vantage point.

Another gorgeous day on the Yorkshire coast

June 10th, 2015

Dismantled pillbox Filey BeachSCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 10, 2015) — We certainly can’t complain about the weather for our fieldwork in Yorkshire this year. Today was spectacular with blue skies and cool sea breezes. It made the long beach hikes very pleasant.

1 Mae on Speeton 061015This was our first day without our English colleague (and Yorkshire native) Paul Taylor, so we were on our own for transportation. We figured out the bus system, though, and made it to the Lower Cretaceous Speeton Clay at Reighton Sands in good time. Here is the last view you’ll have of Mae Kemsley (’16) working on her outcrops of this gray, mushy unit. We collected sediment samples this morning, along with a few last fossils.

2 Meredith on Speeton 061015Here is Meredith Mann (’16) doing the same. We finished all of our fieldwork for Mae’s project by 10:30 a.m., so we could make a long beach hike from the Speeton Cliffs northwards to Filey.

3 Meredith waiting on tide

4 Mae waiting on tideWe hiked as far as we could on Filey Brigg, but had to chill because our sites were still cut off by the high tide. Waiting for a tide to drop is tedious, but the students had plenty of patience.

5 Thalassinoides 061015We reached the large slabs of Hambleton Oolite Member (Upper Jurassic, Oxfordian) with Thalassinoides burrows to begin Meredith’s data collection. These are impressive trace fossils, with numerous shelly fossils in the surrounding matrix. We took reference photos and collected what we could. Unfortunately only three slabs met our criteria for measurements, so we moved to a unit exposed just below the Hambleton.

6 Cannonball concretionsOn the north side of Filey Brigg there are these large “cannonball” concretions, which were excellent stratigraphic markers for us. They are in the Saintoft Member of the Lower Calcareous Grit Formation. They told us that the units above were the Passage Beds Member of the Coralline Oolite Formation.

7 Passage Beds 061015Mae and Meredith are here collected fossils from the Passage Beds above the concretions. This unit is interesting to us because it contains shelly debris that was apparently washed onto shore during storms. These shells are often heavily encrusted with oysters and serpulids. Such sclerobionts have been little studied in this part of the section.

8 MMbus 061015On our sunny ride home the students sat in the front of the top section of our double-decker bus. Not a bad commute for a day’s work!

 

A coincidence?

June 9th, 2015

a Shoe Zone SmithSCARBOROUGH, ENGLAND (June 9, 2015) — Why do these geologists look so pleased to be standing in front of a nondescript shoe store? The answer is on the blue plaque above their heads.

b Smith plaque 060915Turns out we’ve been eating breakfast every morning next to the Scarborough home of the heroic geologist William Smith. Auspicious!

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