Archive for October, 2011

Wooster Geologists in Minneapolis! (Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America)

October 9th, 2011

MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA–Wooster Geologists are again attending the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in force. It is strangely very warm and sunny here in mid-October Minneapolis. The convention center looks like a late summer college campus with people sunning themselves in grassy gardens surrounding the convention buildings.

We have all four faculty and six students at the meeting this year making various presentations from Sunday through Wednesday. We will soon show you our students giving poster presentations, along with comments on the meeting itself.

Minneapolis skyline from the Convention Center. Note the blue sky!

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: an aberrant brachiopod (Permian of Texas)

October 9th, 2011

Funny word to apply to a fossil: aberrant, meaning “deviating from the normal”. It’s an old-fashioned word rarely used these days, primarily because we have a hard time defining “normal”. It was the word used when I was introduced to the above brachiopod, though, so I employ it in honor of my old-timey professors.

On the left is the dorsal valve exterior and on the right the ventral valve interior of Leptodus americanus Girty 1908. (Both valves are broken.) This species is a member of the Family Lyttoniidae in the Order Productida, which some of my students may have just figured out. The large ventral valve relative to the reduced dorsal valve is the clue. The specimen was found in the Word Limestone (Wordian Stage, Guadalupian Series, Middle Permian System, about 265 million years old) in Hess Canyon, Texas. It is replaced by silica (“silicified”) and so was easily extracted from a block of limestone by dissolving away the calcium carbonate matrix.

These brachiopods, along with many other types, lived in extensive reefs in west Texas during the Permian. The ventral valve was cemented to other shells and extended out parallel to the substrate. The much smaller dorsal valve fit into the grooves, leaving much of the soft-part interior exposed. My professors said it was “like a leaf in a gravy boat” — and I had no idea what a “gravy boat” was then.

It is likely that Leptodus americanus had photosynthetic zooxanthellae embedded in its exposed mantle tissues. These are protists (most often dinoflagellates) that live inside the tissues of metazoans and provide them with nutrients and oxygen in return for carbon dioxide and a cozy place to live. Reef-forming corals are the best known animals to have such a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae today. It would thus not be surprising to see a similar system with these reefal brachiopods.

Not so aberrant after all.


Girty, G.H. 1908. The Guadalupian fauna. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 58:1-651.

Williams, A. 1953. The morphology and classification of the oldhaminid brachiopods. Washington Academy of Sciences Journal 9: 279-287.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: an oreodont (probably from the Oligocene of Nebraska)

October 2nd, 2011

Oreodonts are extraordinarily common fossils in the Oligocene of North America. Just about every teaching fossil collection contains at least a couple oreodont skulls, most obtained during late Nineteenth-Century field trips to the Great Plains. Our specimen above is of the genus Merycoidodon Leidy, 1848. We know it is Oligocene in age (about 30 million years old), but we don’t know where it came from. (Always label your fossils with location and stratigraphy!) If I had to guess, I’d say it is from the Upper Brule Formation, White River Badlands, Nebraska, USA. (An easy call because most seem to come from there.)

Our Merycoidodon skull is a bit distorted by burial, but you can still see some characteristic features. There is a pit in front of the eye orbital. This may have housed a scent gland like that found in deer today. The teeth (close-up shown below) include impressive canines and a row of strong molars for tearing and grinding vegetation.

Merycoidodon (the name means “ruminating teeth”) was an artiodactyl (even-toed hoofed mammal) that lived in large herds from the late Eocene to the early Miocene, with peak abundance in the Oligocene. So far they are found only in North America. They looked a bit like large pigs, at least in their bodies, with heads that look rather doggy to me (see below). The adults averaged about a meter and a half long. The herds of these animals would have looked odd to our eyes because they were clearly not built for fast running.

Merycoidodon culbertsoni (Oligocene of North America). (From Nobu Tamura via Wikipedia.)

Leidy (1848) named these fossils Merycoidodon. However, in 1853 he referred to them by the new name Oreodon. Cope (1884) considered Merycoidodon a nomen nudum (meaning a “naked name”; a taxon inadequately named and thus invalid). Sinclair (1924) wrote that Merycoidodon was a nomen dubium (“a name of unknown or doubtful application”). Lander (1998) called the original name a nomen vanum (“available name consisting of unjustified but intentional emendations of previously published names”). I report this only to show you a bit of the legalism necessarily underlying taxonomy — the science of naming organisms. Taxonomy is a universal language in science and so it must have rigid laws to keep usage uniform. I think it is rather fun to sort out the histories of names and their validity, but most students understandably find it rather dull.

We now refer to this group of oreodonts by Leidy’s original 1848 name of Merycoidodon for two reasons: (1) The Law of Priority: the first name used to describe a taxon is the valid one if done properly; and (2) Oreodon turns out to also be a name in the taxonomic history of a fish genus, and we can’t have confusion like this.


Lander, B. 1998. Oreodontoidea, p. 402-425 In: Janis, C.N., Scott, K.M. and Jacobs, L.L. (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Mones, A. 1989. Nomen dubium vs. nomen vanum. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9: 232-234.

Stevens, M.S. and Stevens, J.B. 1996. Merycoidodontinae and Miniochoerinae, p. 498-573. In: Prothero, D.R. and Emry, R.J. (eds.), The terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene transition in North America. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

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