Geochemists know preparation is key

May 22nd, 2016

San Diego, CA – While the University of San Diego celebrated their commencement, we commenced lab work on the Black Mountain Project. We began by drying and sieving the soil samples that we collected earlier in the week.

Amineh AlBashaireh ('18) is removing her soil samples from the drying oven.

Amineh AlBashaireh (’18) is removing her soil samples from the drying oven.

Her soil samples display variety of colors and compositions.

Her soil samples display variety of colors and compositions.

Dr. Beth O'Shea (USD) and Amineh discuss the Munsell System for classifying the color of soil.

Dr. Beth O’Shea (USD) and Amineh discuss the Munsell System for classifying the color of soil.

While her samples dry, Amineh is helping prepare samples for analysis on the scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). Doesn't she look like a happy geochemist?While her samples dry, Amineh is helping prepare samples for analysis on the scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). Doesn’t she look like a happy geochemist?

Field Work on Black Mountain

May 21st, 2016

San Diego, CA – Amineh AlBashaireh (’18) and I are working with USD scientists, Dr. Bethany O’Shea, Elizabeth Johnston, and Eric Cathcart on the geology of Black Mountain in San Diego, CA.

Black Mountain Open Space Park is a popular hiking and mountain biking destination.

Black Mountain Open Space Park is a popular hiking and mountain biking destination.

The Santiago Peak Volcanics are exposed in the park. These rocks are early Cretaceous in age (~110 Ma) and are thought to represent the volcanic arc associated with the Peninsular Range batholith (Herzig and Kimbrough, 2014).

Slightly metamorphosed andesites and basaltic andesites are present as gray to dark gray aphanitic (fine grained) rocks with scattered phenocrysts (crystals) of plagioclase.

Slightly metamorphosed andesites and basaltic andesites are present as gray to dark gray aphanitic (fine grained) rocks with scattered phenocrysts (crystals) of white plagioclase.

There are also volcaniclastic rocks like this tuff breccia that include large clasts of andesites, basaltic andesites, and other fragmental rocks.

There are also volcaniclastic rocks like this tuff breccia that include large clasts of andesites, basaltic andesites, and fragmental volcanic rocks.

Outcrops of lapillistone contain accretionary lapilli, or rounded sphere of volcanic ash, that hint at the more turbulent and explosive nature of this volcano.

Outcrops of lapillistone contain accretionary lapilli, or rounded spheres of volcanic ash, that show evidence of the more turbulent and explosive nature of this volcano.

Hikers and bikers who visit Black Mountain may be less familiar with its volcanic history and more familiar with its mining history. In the 1920s, this area was briefly mined for arsenic. The arsenic was used in pesticides at the time.

Hikers and bikers who visit Black Mountain may be less familiar with its volcanic history and more familiar with its mining history. In the 1920s, this area was briefly mined for arsenic. The arsenic was used in pesticides at the time (Stewart, 1963).

Our research group is exploring one of the abandoned mines.

Our research group is exploring one of the abandoned mines.

In the mine waste, you can see shiny gold specs of aresenopyrite (FeAsS). Arsenopyrite is a sulfide mineral in which some of the sulfur is replaced with arsenic.

Amineh is studying trace element concentrations in the soils on Black Mountain. Here she is collecting samples. In the next few days, and over the course of the summer, we'll show you how she processes these samples in the lab.

Amineh is studying trace element concentrations in the soils on Black Mountain. Here she is collecting samples. In the next few days, and over the course of the summer, we’ll show you how she processes these samples in the lab.

This was a small (~30 cm) rattlesnake that we saw earlier in the day, and we take field safety seriously, so when we heard a rattle coming from the tall grass, we ended our sampling and called it a day.

This was a small (~30 cm) rattlesnake that we saw earlier in the day, and we take field safety seriously, so when we heard a rattle coming from the tall grass, we ended our sampling and called it a day.

It was an exciting, productive, and safe day in the field. More to come in the next few days as we start on our lab work.

References:

Herzig, C.T. and Kimbrough, D.L. 2014. Santiago Peak volcanics: Cretaceous arc volcanism of the western Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California. GSA Memoirs 211: 345-363.

Stewart, R.M. 1963. Black Mountain Group in Weber, H.F., Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California: San Francisco, California Division of Mines and Geology, 49-50.

Wooster Geologists in San Diego, CA

May 20th, 2016

San Diego, CA – Wooster Geologists don’t waste any time getting to work on their summer research. Amineh AlBashaireh (’18) and I have made our way to the University of San Diego to start on a new research project with our collaborators in the Department of Environmental and Ocean Sciences. Our trip began with a tour of the department’s facilities in the impressive Shiley Center for Science and Technology.

The grand and welcoming entrance to the Shiley Center, which houses USD's science programs.

The grand and welcoming entrance to the Shiley Center, which houses USD’s science programs.

Visitors to the Department of Environmental and Ocean Sciences are greeted with this stunning display of a donated coral collection.

Visitors to the Department of Environmental and Ocean Sciences are greeted with this stunning display of a donated coral collection.

A favorite lunch spot is the Strata Plaza. The plaza was designed to represent the local stratigraphy and includes regional fossils, stones, and shells.

A favorite lunch spot is the Strata Plaza. The plaza was designed to represent the local stratigraphy and includes regional fossils, stones, and shells.

Our tour ended in the lab, where Dr. Bethany O'Shea and her graduate student, Elizabeth Johnston, gave us an overview of their work. Looks like they mean business!

Our tour ended in the lab, where Dr. Bethany O’Shea and her graduate student, Elizabeth Johnston, gave us an overview of their work. Looks like they mean business!

We’re looking forward to a full week of field and lab work. Stay tuned for more posts from sunny San Diego!

Good things happen at VMSG

January 7th, 2016

Dublin, Ireland – Congratulations to Mary Reinthal (’16) for a successful poster presentation at VMSG 2016!

image-5-768x1024_sizedMary did a fantastic job giving her ‘lightning talk,’ a two-minute round-robin-style presentation of her poster.

The poster session was everything that it should be. Mary received excellent feedback and advice on her research, met a number of people who are working on similar projects, and expanded her post-graduation career opportunities. She was an excellent representative of the Wooster Geology program. Well done!

Wooster Geologists in Ireland

January 6th, 2016

Greetings from Dublin! Mary Reinthal (’16) and I are attending the annual conference of the Volcano and Magmatic Studies Group (#VMSG2016) at Trinity College. Volcanologists, petrologists, geochemists, and geophysicists have gathered to share their research on igneous topics ranging from large igneous provinces (LIPs) to volcanic hazards. We started the conference, appropriately, with a tour of the architecture and building stones on Trinity’s campus.

The tour began in Parliament Square, so named for the Parliament that supported the construction of the surrounding buildings during the 1700s.

The tour began in Parliament Square, so named for the Parliament that supported the construction of the surrounding buildings during the 1700s.

In the background, you see the Chapel (1787-98), which is composed of the golden brown, granular Leinster granite. The windows are surrounded by Portland Stone, a fossiliferous limestone from Dorset.

The floor of the square is paved with polished glacial cobbles of a variety of lithologies, including limestone and andesite.

The floor of the square is paved with polished glacial cobbles of a variety of lithologies, including limestone and andesite.

Walkways of marble from China were added later to make the square more accessible.

Walkways of gneiss from China were added later to make the square more accessible.

Our last stop was the Museum Building, which houses the Geology and Engineering Departments. The building was recently cleaned in a painstaking effort that lasted ~4 years and involved the removal of gypsum deposits by dental drill and soot by a slow stream of water, but it was worth the effort. The architectural details of the Museum Building are breathtaking. On the exterior, the Portland Stone features intricate and unique carvings of leaves, birds, cats and mice, and other natural objects.

Visitors are greeted with robust pillars of limestone or Connemara marble.

Inside the building, visitors are greeted with robust pillars of limestone or Connemara marble.

Step past the pillars and you'll be awed by a soaring, colorful enameled brick ceiling.

Step past the pillars and you’ll be awed by a soaring, colorful enameled brick ceiling.

The Museum Building was the perfect venue for tonight’s conference ice-breaker, where we were finally able to connect faces to familiar names. Overall, it was a successful introduction to a vibrant and welcoming community of scientists. Tomorrow, Mary becomes an official member of that community when she’ll present her research on water on subglacial volcanics.

 

 

A True Liberal Arts Experience

December 9th, 2015

Guest Blogger: Mary Reinthal

If you were to poll the campus about their fall break, not many would say that they spent 20 hours over 2 days in an FTIR lab analyzing glass chips for volatile content. But if you were to ask geology senior Mary Reinthal and her advisor Dr. Meagen Pollock, that’s exactly what they would say. Fly in on a Monday; analyze samples at University of Massachusetts Amherst Tuesday and Wednesday; fly out Thursday. It was a lot of work, but somebody had to do it (for their Independent Study). The time was spent looking at the volatile spectra from individual, doubly polished glass chips collected from British Columbia, Canada.

Not a lot of windows in the FTIR lab, so Mary had to look at glass chips.

Not a lot of windows in the FTIR lab, so Mary had to look at glass chips.

After all that time in the lab, a lot of data were collected (yay!). These numbers will hopefully help us understand the evolution of glaciovolcanic tindars in British Columbia. Until then, however, these data will to be sifted through and looked at more closely as the semester continues.

Mary measuring thickness of glass wafers. To understand the bigger picture of volatile effects on eruptions you have to look small. Like micron-scale small.

Mary measuring thickness of glass wafers. To understand the bigger picture of volatile effects on eruptions you have to look small. Like micron-scale small.

Of course, the visit to U-Mass. Amherst wasn’t all science and glass chips. After finishing a 9-hour stint in the lab on Wednesday, Dr. Pollock and Mary ventured to Concord, Massachusetts to visit Walden Pond. In short, a truly liberal arts education was had by all.

Mary and Thoreau pondering life and science.

Mary and Thoreau pondering life and science.

 

ICP-MS OSU Adventure

September 14th, 2015

[Guest bloggers: Mary Reinthal and Chloe Wallace]

In five days, three Wooster geologists prepped and analyzed over 50 samples, ate tons of food, and learned a lot of science. Okay, maybe not tons of food, but we did eat a lot. For three solid days, rising junior Chloe Wallace and rising senior Mary Reinthal were able to dabble in wet chemistry at the Ohio State University under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Pollock. The days were spent in geochemistry labs preparing sieved whole rock samples for ICP-MS analyses.

For those not familiar, ICP-MS stands for Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. ICP-MS is a system that allowed us to determine trace elements in our samples, which better help us separate lithofacies units into distinctive geochemical groups. This, then, allows for a broader understanding of how and when these units were emplaced in relationship to one another. That’s a lot of information from some geochemistry.

Chloe and Mary in the clean lab.

Chloe and Mary in the clean lab.

One of the days, Chloe and Mary were able to get outside and venture around campus and check out some of the sights. But most days at OSU main campus were spent not in the sun, but in the basement, measuring solutions, precisely weighing powders, wearing clean-lab gear, or inputting data into the computer.

Chloe weighing whole-rock powders.

Chloe weighing whole-rock powders.

Mary pipetting acids into the vials to digest the samples.

Mary pipetting acids into the vials to digest the samples.

After long days of work, however, we got to peruse the campus scene, and we ate somewhere new every day. It was exhausting work, but the hope is for some good data.

Mary and Chloe celebrating the completion of sample preparation!

Mary and Chloe celebrating the completion of sample preparation!

Team Utah 2015

August 6th, 2015

Guest bloggers: Julia Franceschi and Mary Reinthal

What do you get when you have zero cloud coverage, 90-degree heat, and a desert? Aside from the start of a bad joke, you get a snippet of the College of Wooster geology’s 2015 expedition to Black Rock desert Utah. It was here that some of the College’s senior geology students—Krysden Schantz, Michael Williams, and Kelli Baxstrom—collected some sunburns and samples for their Senior Independent Studies. These research projects range anywhere from trying to figure out the date of the lava flow to mechanisms of emplacement (e.g., channelized vs. inflated flows). Some of the students that went, however, went because they were able-bodied field assistants who could handle the heat. Geology major Julia Franceschi said this about her field assisting experience:

“Utah was extremely hot and there were some days (and by some days I mean everyday) where 3 liters of water were not enough. But we managed to get a lot of good data, even though my boots took a beating (R.I.P). ”

Chloe Wallace and Julia Franceschi use the Trimble GPS to make cm-scale measurements of the topography.

Chloe Wallace and Julia Franceschi use the Trimble GPS to make cm-scale measurements of the topography.

When the plane finally landed in Salt Lake City, Utah, a 2 ½ hour drive took the crew to Fillmore, the location of their field site. The first day, Friday, started around 11AM, but the crew learned quickly that the earlier they started, the less intense the sun (and heat) was.

Team Utah meeting to distribute equipment and plan the field day.

Team Utah meeting to distribute equipment and plan the field day.

Like for most groups, the first day was devoted as a get-accustomed-to-the-field day, that entailed some reconnaissance and exploration. The rest of the week was spent doing eight hours a day of research and studies. According to Dr. Meagen Pollock, walking on a’a is “nonsense” and more often than not, each day was faced with new challenges. Chloe Wallace and Julia conducted high resolution GPS location and elevation data. Dan Misinay took photographs and helped Krysden conduct transects to record vegetative cover. Michael and Kelli spent most of their days mapping the area and attempting to understand volcanic features. Some days, however, were graced with the occasional snake or rainbow to change up the scenery. It was a successful trip.

One of our lizard friends.

One of our lizard friends.

A snake friend, warming itself in the morning sun. Photo credit: Dan Misinay

A snake friend, warming itself in the morning sun. Photo credit: Dan Misinay

Kelli and Dr. Judge measuring striae.

Kelli and Dr. Judge measuring striae.

Krysden is in her element among the lavas.

Krysden is in her element among the lavas. Photo Credit: Dan Misinay

Contemplating lava emplacement clearly brings joy to Michael.

Contemplating lava emplacement clearly brings joy to Michael. Photo Credit: Dan Misinay

Dan helps Krysden with her vegetation survey.

Dan helps Krysden with her vegetation survey.

We were treated to a double rainbow over our field site after a light sprinkle in the desert.

We were treated to a double rainbow over our field site after a light sprinkle in the desert.

And a show of wild flowers! Photo Credit: Kelli Baxstrom

And a show of wild flowers! Photo Credit: Kelli Baxstrom

Team Utah proudly representing Wooster Geologists!

Team Utah proudly representing Wooster Geologists!

Pillows, and Dikes, and Bears. Oh My!

June 28th, 2014

Guest Bloggers: Mary Reinthal, Julia Franceschi, and Liz Plascencia

Greetings from Smithers, British Columbia! It is day three on the road and we are less then 2 days away from arriving at our field site – Pillow Ridge here we come! So far we have seen an array of fascinating geological features, including massive walls of pillow lavas, dikes, glacial deposits, and water falls all at Wells Gray Provincial park. The stunning landscape and picturesque views have impressed all of us.

20140627-234355-85435269.jpg Roadside geology where the crew is looking at a dike that intrudes tuff-breccia at Second Canyon in Wells Gray Provincial Park. Photo credit: Liz Placenscia

20140627-235010-85810903.jpgHere’s an example of a pillow lava with a fractured glass rind, like the ones we’ll see in Pillow Ridge.

20140627-235333-86013931.jpg We also got to see a few of the 39 named Wells Gray waterfalls, like this one, Spahats Falls, with its fantastic columnar-jointed lava flows.

20140628-000004-4876.jpg Three bears have been sighted on the trip thus far. Here’s one that we saw along the side of the road, munching on some grass. Photo credit: Liz Placenscia

B.C. Bound Part II: Here’s to Not Getting Eaten by Bears

June 25th, 2014

Guest Bloggers: Julia Franceschi and Mary Reinthal

A little over a week ago at Spoon market in downtown Wooster, we met our research collaborators from Dickinson College. Although it was the first time we met rising junior Liz Plascencia and Dr. Ben Edwards, after a little talking and a lot of food, it seemed like we had known them for years.

It turns out Liz is just like us: she loves the outdoors, she doesn’t want to get eaten by a bear in the field (*potentially*) and, of course, she loves rocks. It was a good sign for the weeks to come, because together, we prepared mentally and physically for the impending two-week trip to British Columbia, Canada (maybe not mentally, but we definitely went to the gym together).

PREP WORK/ WHY WE ARE GOING:

Pillow Ridge in British Columbia has exceptional pillow lava exposure. These pillows were created by subglacial volcanic features, and were subsequently sheared by a retreating glacier, thus making for an excellent work site to study these lavas. It is our hope to observe, characterize, and model the pillow-dominated area for reconstruction of the stratigraphy, and study a variety of pillow samples for geochemical analysis.

So in the weeks preceding the trip to Pillow Ridge, Wooster students Adam Silverstein, Mary Reinthal, Julia Franceschi (and of course Liz) did a lot of preparation from previously collected samples from the area. We made pressed pellets, fused glass beads, picked glass chips for volatile analysis. It wasn’t all physical work. Sometimes we read papers on pillow lavas for three hours in Broken Rocks over coffee with Dr. Pollock. Sometimes we did equipment checks and learned how to use a Brunton compass. It was a very “independent minds working together”-type atmosphere, but everyday was a lot of fun. See below for an exciting array of pictures portraying the lab work. 

This is the much talked about Liz Plascencia (with 9/10 of Adam Silverstein). They are in the process of weighing samples.

This is the much talked about Liz Plascencia (with 9/10 of Adam Silverstein). They are in the process of weighing samples.

This is a happy teaching moment at the XRD. Pictured is the one and only Dr. Pollock, and one of the tree-ring-lab students, rising sophomore Sarah McGrath.

This is a happy teaching moment at the XRD. Pictured is the one and only Dr. Pollock, and one of the tree-ring-lab students, rising sophomore Sarah McGrath.

This is rising Junior Mary Reinthal doing major and trace element graphs on Excel. Doesn’t she look happy? Because she loves geology, that’s why.

This is rising Junior Mary Reinthal doing major and trace element graphs on Excel. Doesn’t she look happy? Because she loves geology, that’s why.

Julia Franceschi of the class of 2016 is packing equipment with incredible skill. This girl knows camping.

Julia Franceschi of the class of 2016 is packing equipment with incredible skill. This girl knows camping.

T-MINUS 24 HOURS:

Having accomplished a lot in the past couple of weeks together, we are now preparing in the last hours to fly out to Vancouver. Together we make an interesting team. We range in field experience from beginner to advanced. We have put in a lot of work, and are now ready for “roughing it” in the field. We have our tents packed and our ugly sweaters prepared. Ready or not, British Columbia, the Wooster and Dickinson crew are coming. And we are prepared to make memories and come back more knowledgeable than when we left (or at least with better thigh muscles/definition). Here’s to a new adventure!

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