Wooster Geologist/Historian on the San Andreas Fault

June 17th, 2017

Berkeley, California — Brandon Bell (’18) is a double major in geology and history at Wooster. He has a classic double-major thesis that combines both disciplines: the early history of modern seismology following the Great San Francisco Earthquake in 1906. He is focused on the growing international communications among scientists about earthquakes, especially between Japan and the United States. Brandon thus is studying the geology of earthquakes as well as original documents generated through these international discussions. Brandon received Copeland Funding from the college to visit the Bay Area of northern California to work in the libraries and visit the San Andreas fault itself. The above image is of the beautiful University of California campus in Berkeley.

Brandon has his own detailed and illustrated blog describing his adventures. Check it out! He is still adding to it.

Special thanks to Dr. Peter Roopnarine at the California Academy of Sciences for meeting with Brandon and adding to his knowledge and experiences.

Wooster Geologists visit Saint-Émilion in southwestern France

June 8th, 2017

La Barde, France — On our last full day in southwestern France, Independent Study student Macy Conrad (’18) and I had a cultural visit with our host Paul and Patricia Taylor to the ancient town of Saint-Émilion. This town, set in a place that has been inhabited for millenia, is a World Heritage site amidst extensive vineyards and wineries. It has many architectural and historical treasures, which we could only touch upon during our short visit.

This wall is all that remains of a 13th-Century monastery demolished in 1337. It is referred to as the “Great Wall”. The building stones in this wall and most of the town itself are Oligocene limestones, some rich with fossil fragments.

The interior of the Collegiate Church, a mix of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

12th-Century frescoes still survive in the Collegiate Church of Saint-Émilion. This set shows the grisly story of Saint Catherine.

The cloisters of the Collegiate Church. Imagine the characters who walked through these passages, from Crusaders of the 12th Century to occupying German soldiers of the 20th.

More 13th century frescoes in the cloisters.

The building stones show magnificent weathering over the last 700 years or so.

The most elaborate weathering accentuates burrow systems in the Oligocene limestones. Later building stones in other regions were actually carved to show apparent weathering patterns like these.

Our lunch view. The bell tower is for a church carved into the limestone below. This is another underground church like the one we visited in Aubeterre.

Our lunch in Saint-Émiliion. Yes, fieldwork is tough in southwestern France. Macy Conrad (’18) is on the left, with Patricia and Paul Taylor and then me.

I want to add an image of the war memorial in Saint-Émilion. Every French village, town and city has at least one. They were erected after World War I and usually inscribed with hundreds of names. The World War II local dead are often inscribed later on the bases.

Finally, a few images from our delightful lodgings in the Taylor home at Bard’s End, La Barde. This is the lounge, which held livestock when this was a farmhouse in the 19th and 20th centuries.

The lounge from the other side, with Paul Taylor entering from outside.

The multi-talented Macy was a great help to the Taylors as they assembled a set of furniture from Ikea.

All our dinners were outside on the patio facing the River Dronne. Delightful!

Thank you again to Paul and Patricia Taylor for making this research expedition such a success and pleasure. We will report our results in later posts!

Macy and I leave tomorrow morning on a long train trip to Paris. I then fly home and Macy continues her European adventure with a visit to friends in Norway. Team France is done with fieldwork. The extensive labwork begins this summer with our specimens.

 

 

A Wooster Geologist on the Somme Battlefield

May 30th, 2017

Amiens, France — I had two days between the bryozoan meeting in Vienna and the fieldwork in southwestern France, so I decided to visit the World War I battlefields in the Somme Valley of northern France. It was a somber experience of natural beauty, stark and effective memorial architecture, and one of the deepest historical tragedies. I had a similar journey in 2010 to my Grandfather Snuffer’s World War I battlefield in the Meuse-Argonne. Above is a view of the cemetery at the Australian National Memorial near Villers-Bretonneux.

There were two major battles between the Allies and the Germans in the Somme Valley. The first, between July 1 and November 18, 1916, was the largest in terms of soldiers involved and lost. There were more than a million casualties, about even on each side, during those four and a half months of battle. A large proportion of those losses occurred on the first day; indeed, the first few minutes. The results were a draw. The second Battle of the Somme took place August 21 through September 2, 1918, and was an overwhelming Allied victory. This brief blog post is about my impressions of the battlefields a century later, so please follow the links for the historical background.

Gravestones at the Australian National Memorial. These are primarily for Australian soldiers, but there were also stones for New Zealanders, South Africans, Britons, and Canadians.

Flanders poppies grow naturally in this region, and they are also used decoratively in cemeteries. See the famous poem by John McCrae: In Flanders Fields.

An emblem of the soldier’s unit is engraved at the top of each stone.

The memorial building has walls of Portland Limestone (Jurassic of southern England) listing the thousands of missing Australian soldiers in the first battle.

In a compounding irony, the Australian National Memorial buildings and gravestones were shot up in turn during a skirmish here between Allied soldiers and invading Germans in 1940.

This is the small Proyart German Cemetery from the 1918 battle. There are over 450 cemeteries from all the involved nationalities throughout the valley. This one is seldom visited but immaculately maintained. The town of Proyart saw much fighting from the beginning of the war to its end.

An unknown German soldier. There are tens of thousands of unknown graves on the battlefields, matched by long, long lists of the missing.

Lochnagar Crater is a massive hole produced by the explosion of a British mine under the German lines on July 1, 1916 — the first day of the first battle. The bedrock is Cretaceous chalk, which was easy to tunnel with simple tools except that it had to be done in silence. No pickaxes were allowed. The last part of the explosives tunnel was dug under the German trenches with bayonettes alone. It is said that one soldier would pry a flint from the wall as another caught it before it struck the floor. The mine explosion was at that time the largest man-made sound in history.

You’ve heard that French farmers still find live artillery shells in their fields? Here’s one of them. About 60 tons a year of WWI explosives are removed from the Somme battlefields. The one above was marked for disposal with a red plastic cup. Demolition teams drive through the countryside in armored ammunition disposal vehicles removing munitions.

The local farmers repurpose many WWI items. Here a modern barbed wire fence is constructed with German barbed wire stakes from the war.

The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was a complicated and bloody operation in September, 1916. The ridge which cost so many Allied lives was selected as the site of the Anglo-French Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. Over 72,000 names are engraved on the limestone panels. The architectural design itself is moving. Its high arches reflect the missing space in lives after so many personal tragedies without even grave for compensation.

A departure from the grim narrative with a brief paleontological note: The Jurassic crinoid Apiocrinites can be identified in the steps of the memorial. I know it well from other contexts.

There is a very well maintained part of the 1916 battlefield at Beaumont-Hamel. Here the Newfoundland Regiment attacked the German lines on the first day of the first Battle of the Somme. The regiment was destroyed in less than twenty minutes after they emerged from their trenches. Six-hundred and seventy men were casualties.

These are remnants of the first line of British trenches.

The killing field of the Newfoundlanders. It is estimated 300-400 of their bodies still remain in the churned soil.

There was an original blasted trunk here called the Danger Tree. It is midway between the British and German lines, about as far as the Newfoundlanders got on July 1, 1916.

A caribou memorial faces the old German positions from the trenches of the Newfoundlanders. All the stones below it are from Newfoundland. The site is maintained by the government of Canada.

The end of my journey was to Hawthorn Ridge, site of a German position blown up by another British mine on the first day of the 1916 battle. The explosion was filmed.

This is the same perspective as the famous photographs and films of the 1916 Hawthorn Ridge explosion. The trees are growing on the crater rim.

This is a famous photo of British soldiers awaiting the Hawthorn mine explosion on July 1, 1916. They had tunneled out of a trench into a sunken lane in no-man’s-land to get as close to the German lines as possible for their attack.

That sunken lane is still present 101 years later.

I wanted to add more about the geology of the battlefield, but the human tragedy is so overwhelming I decided to leave it for later. For now, see the geological cross-section below. Also consider the remarkable observation that the intensity of the artillery bombardments actually changed the geology of the region. “Bombturbation” is a term that has been proposed in our clinical scientific way.

Wooster Geologist in Vienna

May 28th, 2017

VIENNA, AUSTRIA — As is the tradition of Larwood meetings of the International Bryozoology Association, time is set aside for a guided tour of the most interesting parts of the host city. Given the incredible diversity of Vienna, we had just a taste today of its attractions and monuments in the city center. Above is the elaborate city hall (Wiener Rathaus).

Vienna’s Imperial Palace, the Hofburg, was for centuries the home of the Habsburgs, rulers of Austria and its empire until their epic collapse at the end of World War I. Apparently almost every emperor since 1275 added or otherwise changed the place, making it an astonishing mix of architectural styles (Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, and Classicism to start). Much of it is unfinished since the ambitions of the last emperor were dashed with the fall of the monarchy in 1918.

Elaborate Roman ruins about 2000 years old were recently found near the palace. The local rumor is that these are the remains of a brothel!

This is the Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna, where we had a limited guided tour.

We had an extended tour of the myriapod collections (essentially millipedes and centipedes), concentrating on various aspects of curation and preservation.

As with most European museums, there is a significant human skull collection. This is a small part of Vienna’s. I never did hear exactly how these skulls were acquired.

During my afternoon tea with friends, this was our view to the left towards the center of the museum.

This was our view through the window to the right. In the square is the elaborate Maria Theresa monument (the empress surrounded by her generals and statesmen). The building on the other side is the Kunsthistorisches Museum, an art and history museum. It was the last place I visited this day.

This was the most impressive art object I saw in the Kunsthistorisches Museum: the first-century Gemma Augustea. It was cut from a double-layered Arabian onyx stone, making an elaborate cameo. The link tells the long story of this figured stone, along with an interpretation of the grim scene.

Earlier in my Vienna visit I toured the Heeresgeschichtliche Museum (Museum of Military History). I practically had the place to myself on this weekday.

The most evocative object in this museum is the car that carried Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife Sophie to their assassinations by the anarchist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914. This was one of the triggering events of World War I.

The assassination scene in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914.

Wooster Geologist in Austria

May 27th, 2017

VIENNA, AUSTRIA–I had the privilege this week to attend the 14th Larwood Symposium of the International Bryozoology Association (IBA) in this beautiful city. It was my first visit, and I was of course very impressed. Above is a view of the Austrian Parliament building (Parlamentsgebäude), and the beautiful blue sky we had for most of our meeting.

About 50 bryozoan experts from 15 countries attended the conference. I love these meetings because of their small size, diversity of disciplines (paleontologists and biologists freely mingle, being nearly indistinguishable until they give their presentations), and friendly fellowship. English was the common language, for which I am grateful to my international colleagues. Above Lee Hsiang Liow of the University of Oslo is giving her talk.

We had an afternoon excursion starting with the small but treasure-filled Krahuletz Museum in Eggenburg, Austria. This is one of those local museums with a national reputation for particular collections. In this case it is fossils, minerals and rocks from the very complex region.

Outside the museum is an excellent rock garden with local varieties well labeled. The above, of course, is a conglomerate with mostly carbonate clasts.

This gneiss shows the useful form of the rock pillars. Four sides are polished and the top is left rough, just the way a geologist likes it.

Patrick Wyse Jackson, President of the IBA, professor at Trinity College Dublin, and a recent visitor in Wooster, manages here to find bryozoans in the museum’s building stone.

After the museum we visited a quarry of fossiliferous Miocene limestone. A nice place, but protected from collecting.

At the end of the day we visited “Fossilienwelt Weinviertel” outside Vienna. It is home to the world’s largest fossil pearl (which somehow I missed seeing) and an excavated Miocene oyster reef. The reef has at least 20,000 large oysters, which are the subject of this “geotainment park”. More than 200 volunteers excavated this reef for public display under a permanent canopy. The oysters seem to have been tossed together by a flood, so they are pushing the definition of “reef”. The lighting of the oysters was so dim that my photographs of them were worthless.

The Fossil World tower is shaped like a Turritella shell.

Here is one of the oysters and some Turritella shells on display at Fossil World. There are many more fossils here than snails and oysters. It is a fun exhibit, but the science has been so diluted for the public that some of the offered explanations are nonsense. (“Stromatolites are made of the poop of algae”.) I recommend a visit, but with a paleontologist as a guide!

Thank you to Thomas Schwaha for organizing this fun trip!

Team Cincinnati heads home ahead of the storm (via Serpent Mound)

March 13th, 2017

Wooster, Ohio — Matthew, Mark and Luke (if only we had a John!) left the field a day early, hightailing it from Maysville, Kentucky, to Wooster today before a large storm system brought snow, ice and freezing rain (delightfully called a “wintry mix”). We made a couple of stops in the Whitewater Formation near West Union, Ohio, but did not collect because we couldn’t be sure of the stratigraphic context of loose specimens. On the way back north we visited the Serpent Mound National Historic Landmark near Peebles, Ohio. Matt and Luke are shown above freezing on the observation tower early in the morning. Not surprisingly, we had the place to ourselves.

Luke and Matt at the state marker for Serpent Mound.

There is no vantage on the ground from which you can see the entire serpent effigy mound. This is the view from the tower looking across the body towards the head.

Above is the coiled tail. There is considerable debate about when this elaborate mound was constructed. Some radiocarbon dating places it at around 300 BCE, therefore built by the Adena people. Other dating indicates it was made about 1070 CE by the Fort Ancient culture. The site is on an ancient (very ancient — Permian!) meteorite impact crater, an astrobleme. No evidence of this structure is directly visible at the site, but a geological survey of the bedrock shows incredible disruption. The late Dr. Frank Koucky, a geology professor at The College of Wooster, did considerable research on what was then known as the Serpent Mound Cryptoexplosion Structure. I had many field trips here with him as a student.

This is the storm we escaped late today. Our field areas are essentially in the pink wintry mix belt. We would have ended the trip early in any case, though, because Matt and Luke were such efficient field paleontologists that they filled all our available boxes with fossils (see below) and we visited all the critical sites we needed. Luke now drives to his home in New Jersey, and Matt drives home to California. Their labwork will begin when they return to campus from Spring Break. More details on their projects and discoveries then!

Team Cincinnati’s fossils ready to be unpacked, washed, sorted and studied.

Wooster’s Fossils of the Week: Geological Magic Lantern Slides from the 19th Century (Part III)

December 16th, 2016

18-devonion-period[Note: Wooster’s Fossil of the Week is on holiday until January 2017.]

This is the last post illustrating the 19th Century Magic Lantern Slides recently found in Scovel Hall of Wooster’s Geology Department. Please see the December 2 post and the week before for details. To review, these slides are 4×8 inches with the image fixed on glass bolted into a thin slab of wood with metal rings. They are chromolithograph slides, each stamped “T.H. McAllister, Optician, N.Y.”. McAllister was the most prominent of many American producers of lantern slides in the late 19th century.

This last set of slides in our collection was apparently used in our old “Historical Geology” courses to evoke the geological time periods. The top image is simply labeled “Devonian“. The trees on the right appear to be towering lycopods, a kind of seedless vascular plant. They were common in the Devonian and are still around today. I can’t tell what the other plants are in the image. The rapid rise of large plants in the Middle Devonian has been called the “Devonian Explosion”. These early forests had significant effects on atmospheric composition, soil formation, erosion, and sediment transport.

[UPDATE: Please see the excellent comments by Ben Creisler. He has given us much new information and numerous links explaining the history of these images. I’ve left my amateur text in place only to record the original post! MW]

19-carboniferous-periodCarboniferous” is the title of this slide. It is dramatic, seemingly showing a Carboniferous forest dominated by ferns being torn apart by a swelling tide. Could this be a comment on the interbedding of marine and terrestrial rock units so common in the Upper Carboniferous of North America?

20-permian-periodFerns are again in the foreground of this Permian scene. I have no explanation for the mountainous seashore landscape, except that the red color of the rocks may represent the New Red Sandstone of Great Britain.

21-transition-periodThis slide is enigmatically labeled “Transition Period”. I suspect it represents the Triassic, a period just after the Permian and thus part of the transition into the Mesozoic. The shrubby plants in the foreground appear to be cycads with massive yellow cones emerging from their tops.

22-eeocen-periodThis image of the “Eocene” is the first of these period slides to depict animals (the herd of ungulates across the river and the bird in the foreground). This may mean these slides were meant to show the progression of plant life over geological time. The forests here look dominated by conifers and angiosperms.

23-miocene-periodThis is a “Miocene” image. I don’t know how I’d distinguish it from the Eocene view above.

24-drift-periodOur final slide shows what the “Drift Period”, which is clearly the Pleistocene. Not only do we have cave bears in the foreground and a herd of bison in the river, there seems to be a massive pile of ice in the left rear!

I have not discovered the artist responsible for these illustrations. If you know, please tell me in the comments!

[UPDATE: Please see excellent information and links by Ben Creisler in the comments below. Thanks, Ben!]

 

Wooster’s Fossils of the Week: Geological Magic Lantern Slides from the 19th Century (Part II)

December 2nd, 2016

12-iguanodon-and-a-hyleosaurusThis is a continuation of last week’s post about a set of 19th century “Magic Lantern Slides” found in Scovel Hall at Wooster. These evocative scenes are taken from reconstructions of ancient life by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (1807-1894). In 1855, Waterhouse Hawkins finished sculpting life-sized models of these extinct animals, along with many others, for the Crystal Palace gardens in London. Most of these extraordinary animal statues still exist.

Above is the Waterhouse Hawkins version of the Early Cretaceous dinosaurs Iguanodon (the critter on top) and Hylaeosaurus (the two on the lower level). These two genera, along with Megalosaurus, were used as the basis for the new Dinosauria erected by Sir Richard Owen in 1842, a mere dozen years before these models were created. Both of these dinosaurs were herbivorous, Iguanodon being an ornithopod and Hylaeosaurus a basal ankylosaur. They are said here to be from “the Secondary Epoch of the Earth’s history”.

13-an-iguanodon-and-a-hyleosaurus-by-benjamin-waterhouse-hawkins-1853A print version of the same scene. Modern reconstructions of these animals are dramatically different, of course. Waterhouse Hawkins was advised by Owen to make these versions as mammalian as possible. The stance and articulation of limbs is the largest change in our conception of these genera. The Iguanodon model is where a famous 1853 New Year’s Eve dinner party was held.

14-megatherium-glyptodonThis next slide is another Waterhouse Hawkins creation of a much later scene. These are reconstructions of the South American ground sloth Megatherium, which lived from the Pliocene through the Pleistocene. Aside from some unnecessary bulk, these reconstructions are not too far off from how we conceive the giant ground sloths today.

16-no-labelThis magic lantern slide from Wooster’s collection is unlabeled, and I’ve found no trace of the image online. The scene has a Mesozoic vibe, with a crinoid, ammonites (or nautiloids?), and a lurking reptile. Any identifying information would be appreciated!

17-anoplotherium-gracile-palaeotheriumAnother Waterhouse Hawkins theme, this time of Eocene ungulates. The label says they are Paleotherium (in the right foreground) and Anoplotherium gracile (on the left in the foreground). Both were originally described from the Paris region by the magnificent Georges Cuvier.

9-benjamin_waterhouse_hawkins-_photograph_by_maull__polyblankBenjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (1807-1894) was a Londoner skilled in natural history and art. His lifetime honors are a clue to his abilities: He was a Member of the Society of Arts, a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and a Fellow of the Geological Society of London. His Crystal Palace dinosaurs are his best know combination of art and science, but he produced much besides. For example, he drew figures for The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle. In 1868 he mounted a skeleton of Hadrosaurus in Philadelphia, the first dinosaur to be displayed in this way. Through his art and connections in the paleontological world, Waterhouse Hawkins brought fossils to life for millions of people in Victorian times.

 

Wooster’s Fossils of the Week: Geological Magic Lantern Slides from the 19th Century (Part I)

November 25th, 2016

1-teleosaurus-ichthyosaurus-pentacrinites-ammonites-gryphaea“Wooster’s Fossil of the Week” is not always about actual fossils, but our topics are each paleontological. Many years ago I discovered in an old box tucked away in the attic of Scovel Hall at Wooster a set of “Magic Lantern Slides” used in geology courses. I came across them again recently and thought I would share these ancient scenes. Lantern slides were the 19th Century equivalent of PowerPoint, so generations of Wooster geology students must have sat in rapture looking at these colorful images. (At least that’s how I imagine them now viewing my PowerPoint slides!) The above imagined seashore view includes the crocodylian Teleosaurus atop the layered rocks, Ichthyosaurus immediately below, four long-necked Plesiosaurus on the left, an orange cluster of the crinoid Pentacrinus rooted inexplicably in the beach sand, and a scattering of ammonite and oyster shells.  The caption on the image says these animals lived during “the Secondary Epoch of the Earth’s history”. We would now say this is a Jurassic scene. The ichthyosaur looks the most odd to us. Not only is it crawling on the land, it lacks a dorsal fin and the characteristic bi-lobed, shark-like tail. These were later discoveries about ichthyosaurs made only after specimens were found with skin impressions.

2-ammonite-lantern-detailThis close-up shows the detail in these images. Ammonites are on the left (“6”) and the oyster Gryphaea is on the right (“7”).

3a-magic-lantern-slide-geological-585The Magic Lantern Slides are 4×8 inches with the image on glass fixed in a thin slab of wood with metal rings. These are chromolithograph slides, each stamped “T.H. McAllister, Optician, N.Y.”. McAllister was the most prominent of many American producers of lantern slides in the late 19th century.

4-megalosaurus-pterodactyleThe quadrupedal beasts in the foreground are the of the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Megalosaurus, with pterodactyls in the background. We now know Megalosaurus was bipedal, like all theropod dinosaurs.

5-megalosaurus-headAnother detail showing the fine quality of these color images on glass.

6-gigantic-lizards-and-some-pterosauria-by-benjamin-waterhouse-hawkins-1853Most readers with any background in the history of paleontology recognize these reconstructions of ancient life from the work of Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (1807-1894). In 1855, Waterhouse Hawkins finished sculpting life-sized models of these extinct animals, along with many others, for the Crystal Palace gardens in London. He was advised for the anatomical details by Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892), a hero of paleontology but not a fan of Darwinian evolution. He is responsible for the dinosaurs of Waterhouse Hawkins looking rather mammalian. Most of these extraordinary animal statues still exist.

9-benjamin_waterhouse_hawkins-_photograph_by_maull__polyblankBenjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (1807-1894). More reconstructions from him, along with his brief biography, in the next installment.

 

Wooster Geologists explore Bristol, England

June 12th, 2016

1 Temple Church interior 585Bristol, England — Cassidy Jester (’17) and I spent the day in Bristol as we await our trip to London tomorrow. We began a rainy, gray morning in the harbor region in museums and historical ships. We were turned away from the Cathedral because it was, naturally enough, Sunday morning. We did get a peek at the finery and costumes of people attending a special service for the Queen’s Pretend 90th Birthday. (Her real birthday being in April. Royals get an extra birthday of their choice, apparently.) From our diverse visits today, I want to present two short pictorials.

Above is an interior view of Temple Church in the Redcliffe district of Bristol, about a block from our hotel. The weather had much improved by the afternoon. Tim Palmer introduced me to this site last year.  This building has been in ruins since the night of November 24, 1940.

2 Temple Church 1940German bombers, during the Bristol Blitz, dropped incendiary bombs on the roof of Temple Church, starting a fire that collapsed the roof, damaged the arcades, and destroyed all the wood furnishings. The building was effectively destroyed, but the ruins were not only left standing, they were reinforced against further collapse.

3 Temple Church 1This is a view of the eastern wall showing the skeletal remains.

4 Temple Church 2The surviving tower.

5 Templar Church in Temple ChurchIn an interesting twist, after the destruction, archaeologists were able to dig into the foundations of Temple Church. The tradition was that the original church building was round. Indeed, round outlines appeared, along with column remnants of a monastery built in the early 12th century by the Order of the Knights Templar. This was a Templar Church in their traditional style evoking the Temple in Jerusalem. Only nine of these round churches were built in England.

6 Queen Square 061216Another site that impressed me was Queen Square. In the center is a statue of King William III (William of Orange, “King Billy”, and the William of “William and Mary”). The square was lively today with a refugee relief concert.

7 Queen Square 1831This is Queen Square on a hot night in 1831. The statue of King Billy has lots of company. Queen Square was the epicenter of the 1831 Bristol Riot over the rejection of a Reform Bill by the House of Lords. At that time only 6000 men of the population of 104,000 were franchised. There was great violence and much destruction that had a deep effect on the nation. The Reform Act was passed the next year.

Two brief Bristol stories!

 

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