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A Twist on our Final Exam: The GIS Poster Symposium

December 11th, 2013

WOOSTER, OH — GEOL 220 (Introduction to GIS) had their final exam this morning, but it was not a typical final exam atmosphere.  It was a very social event, with much mingling and chatter (in between bites of donut holes and muffins).  This semester, the students took their last GIS exam/quiz a few weeks earlier, so that they could concentrate on individual projects for the remainder of the semester.  The class was full of amazing project ideas that spanned many majors on campus.  Student interests (which mirrored the many majors) included:  geology, archaeology, biology, chemistry, political science, history, sociology, anthropology, and urban studies.

After writing a project proposal, students spent the last few weeks of the semester analyzing data and finalizing their projects into posters.  Their posters were presented during a “GIS Poster Symposium”, which was held this morning in Scovel Hall.  The goal of each project was to identify a problem that could be solved spatially using the GIS mapping skills that they learned this semester.

DSC_2629Above, Andy Nash (left, ’14) and Simon Doong (’15) are listening to Candy Thornton (right, ’14) talk about her project, which was inspired by Toure, a speaker at Wooster’s 2013 Forum Series called “Facing Race”.  Candy investigated the intersection of public transportation, unemployment, and ethnicity in Los Angeles County (CA).

DSC_2631Owen Yeazell (left, ’14) listens as Kyle Burden (right, ’14) discusses his project on natural hazard mitigation: the spatial comparison between population centers and volcanic centers in California.

DSC_2633Scott Kugel’s (left, ’14) poster is directly related to his I.S. research and an offshoot of his experience this past summer as a member of a Keck Geology Consortium project.  Scott is intensely explaining his analysis of Connecticut River discharge during Hurricane Irene to Cameron Matesich (right, ’14).

DSC_2634Zach Sheehan’s (above, ’14) 2013 summer internship/experiences peaked his interest on food deserts and food accessibility issues in Ohio.  He translated that to a project that analyzed Ohio median household income (by tracts) fast food restaurants, number of grocery stores, and obesity.

I am very proud of all of the GIS work this semester.  Not only did the students do a wonderful job presenting at the GIS Poster Symposium today, but in recent weeks, they also learned to navigate data problems and mysterious software issues along the way!!

In case you are interested in the amazing variety of projects, here is a list of students in GEOL 220 and their individual projects:

  • Kyle Burden, “A Spatial Comparison between Volcanoes and Areas of High Population in California, USA”
  • Allison Chin, “Analysis of Groundwater Pollution in Wayne County, OH”
  • Simon Doong, “Comparison of Military, Education, and Health Spending Among Nations”
  • Coleman Fitch, “Marcellus Shale Formation: Drilling Permits Relationship to Shale Depth and Productivity”
  • Cassandra Greenbaum, “Potential Influences for Obesity in the United States”
  • Perry Grosch, “Analysis of Human Populations around areas that have been marked by the incidents on the International Nuclear Event Scale in the United States before 2007″
  • Nichole Gustafson, “Forest Fragmentation and Garlic Mustard Colonization”
  • Tricia Hall, “Analysis of Fluid Flow in the Late Cretaceous Sixmile Canyon Formation”
  • Allison Ham, “The Influence of County Income on the Increasing Rate of Living Cases of HIV/AIDS in the D.C. Area”
  • Alex Hiatt, “Mapping Potential Jokulhlaup Flow Paths at Eyjafjallajokull in Southern Iceland”
  • Scott Kugel, “Maximum Discharge of the Connecticut River and its Tributaries During Hurricane Irene, August 21-30, 2011
  • Cameron Matesich, “GIS Model of the Geochemical Analysis of the High-Silica and Low-Silica Basalt Flows from Miter Crater in Ice Springs Volcanic Field, Black Rock Desert, Utah”
  • Stephanie Megas, “Portfolio Model School District Spatial Distribution and Projected Implications for Communities Surrounding School Closings in Baltimore City Public Schools (BCPS) using GIS Model Building”
  • Oscar Mmari, “Analysis of the Location of Federal Land, Population Density, Income, Water, and Fracking Wells in Utica and Marcellus Formations of Ohio”
  • Andy Nash, “Holocene Glacier Fluctuations Mapped in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve using Radiocarbon Dated Detrital Logs”
  • Brian Porrett, “Putting World-Systems Analysis in Context: An Exploration of the Core and Periphery Relationship in the Early Bronze Age Levant”
  • Zachariah Sheehan, “The Impact of Income and Type of Food Accessibility on Obesity”
  • Ashleigh Sims, “How Does Grave Style Change Over Time and Space in the Cemetery of Athienou, Cyprus?”
  • Wyatt Smith, “Voting as a Function of Boredom: A State-by-State Analysis”
  • Nathan Taitano, “Wildlife Habitat and Land Management”
  • Candice Thornton, “ACESS:  A Socioeconomic GIS Study on the Impact of Public Transportation on Employment”
  • Jim Torpy, “Political Power and Mineral Access in Ancient Cyprus”
  • Henry Waldron, “ASU Downtown:  How a New Campus Affects Urban Property Values”
  • Owen Yeazell, “Impact of Roman Cities on Later English Populations”


Highlights from the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting

December 10th, 2013

SAN FRANCISCO, CA – The Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union is once again taking place the festive city of San Francisco. Mild weather and sunny skies have greeted the 22,000+ geoscientists who have traveled from across the globe to participate in the meeting. Among the crowd are many Wooster geologists. Alumni Nicolas Young, Lauren Vargo, and Katharine Schleich joined Dr. Wiles and me for an informal alumni lunch.

Lily Christman (left) caught up with us in the afternoon at the Wooster IS poster. I introduced them to another  former student of mine, Alex Lloyd (right), who was a student at Dickinson College when I taught there in a visiting position. Pictured in the center are Lauren Vargo (center right) and me (center left).

Lily Christman (left) caught up with us in the afternoon at the Wooster IS poster. I introduced them to another former student of mine, Alex Lloyd (right), who was a student at Dickinson College when I taught there in a visiting position. Pictured in the center are Lauren Vargo (center right) and me (center left).

The conference isn’t just about networking and reconnecting with old friends. We’re primarily here to contribute to the dialogue of our scientific disciplines. On behalf of the department, I presented a poster in an education session about best practices in the I.S. program (thanks to all of those who stopped by!).  Alex Hiatt (’14) and Mary Reinthal (’16) will be presenting their work on subglacial volcanics on Thursday.

Dr. Greg Wiles presented the work that he and his collaborators have been doing in Russia. They are constructing tree-ring records to understand decadal variability in climate.

Dr. Greg Wiles presented the work that he and his collaborators have been doing in Russia. They are constructing tree-ring records to understand decadal variability in climate.

For those of you wishing you were here, or are at the conference but can’t catch all of the exciting talks and posters, here are some other highlights that you might find interesting:

  • 3-D Fossils: The British Geological Survey has 3-D images and scans of fossils. If you have a 3-D printer, you can download the scan files and print a fossil for yourself! (How cool is that? I’m thinking Dr. Mark Wilson will have a need for our newly acquired 3-D printer soon).
  • A New Lava Flow Simulation: There’s a new simulation of lava flow emplacement that better reproduces the features characteristic of inflated pahoehoe flows. Check out the paper by Glaze and Baloga (2013), JVGR, 255, 108-123.
  • Comprehensive Field Camp: The Southern Illinois University field camp exposes students to four tectonic settings. With sites in Grand Teton National Park, yellowstone, and Craters of the Moon National Monument, who wouldn’t want to do field camp with SIU?
  • Volcanic Hazards in California: The USGS has released a digital compilation of the volcanic vents and associated hazards in California. The digital database contains ArcGIS files ready for download.
  • Games for Teaching: Programmers are teaming up with geoscientists to create interactive games and simulations to teach everything from hazards to conservation. Naranpur Online, for example, is a socio-economic role-playing game informed by the science of hydrology that could be useful for connecting courses across disciplines.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: Echinoid fragments from the Upper Carboniferous of southern Nevada

December 8th, 2013


Bird Spring Echinoid Carboniferous KC33 585This rock has been in my Invertebrate Paleontology course teaching collection since I arrived in Wooster. I collected it way back when I was doing my fieldwork for my dissertation on the biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Bird Spring Formation (Carboniferous-Permian). This specimen comes from Kyle Canyon in the Spring Mountains west of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is from the Upper Carboniferous part of the Bird Spring. It is up this week in honor of Jeff Thompson, a new graduate student at the University of Southern California beginning his thesis work on Paleozoic echinoids.

These are spines and test plates from the echinoid Archaeocidaris M’Coy, 1844. There are many far more attractive specimens known of Archaeocidaris, so consider this a more average view of what you’re likely to find in the fossil record. The test plates are polygonal and the spines have characteristic outward-directed thorns on them. This particular specimen was disarticulated after death in a shallow, possibly lagoonal environment.
M'CoyArchaeocidaris was named by Sir Frederick M’Coy, an Irish paleontologist. (You may have seen his name as McCoy or MacCoy, but he signed with the more natively Irish M’Coy.) M’Coy was born in 1817 or 1823 (I’m shocked that there is such a discrepancy in the records) in Dublin (maybe). His father was a physician and a professor at Queen’s College, Galway. M’Coy was apparently an early starter, giving his first paper in 1838 on bird functional morphology and classification. (He was either 15 or 21.) His work history is a bit spotty. In 1841 he became Curator of the Geological Society of Dublin, but was soon replaced. In 1845 he joined the new Geological Survey of Ireland hoping to be a laboratory paleontologist. He ended up doing fieldwork but was rather bad at it, resigning from that job. Off to Cambridge he went to assist Adam Sedgwick in describing fossils. He was at last doing something in which he excelled, resulting in important publications. In 1849 M’Coy was appointed Chair of Geology and Mineralogy at Queen’s College, Belfast. His last career move was a big one: he left Ireland for Australia in 1854 to become one of the first four professors of the new University of Melbourne and director of the National Museum of Victoria (now Museum Victoria). M’Coy was very successful in these roles, although I must note that he was an advocate of importing English rabbits into Australia (you know the result) and he appeared to be a bit of an anti-Darwinist. He died in Melbourne in 1899. (Thank you to my friend Patrick Wyse Jackson for these details on M’Coy.)
Echinocrinus urii pl XXVII 1 M'Coy 1844The above is a figure in M’Coy’s 1844 work of the echinoid Echinocrinus urii (M’Coy, 1844, pl. XXVII, figure 1). There is a long story as to how this E. urii became the type species of Archaeocidaris. Andrew Smith sums it as:

Cidaris urii Fleming, 1828, p. 478, by subsequent designation of Bather 1907, p. 453. Generic name Archaeocidaris validated in Opinion 370 under plenary powers, by suppression under same powers of generic name Echinocrinus Agassiz, 1841. Opinions of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature 1955, 11, 301-320.

In any case, you can see how closely this illustration of an Irish fossil resembles our fossiliferous slab from the Spring Mountains. Ireland is far from Nevada now, but in the Carboniferous they were considerably closer.


M’Coy, F. 1844. A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous limestone fossils of Ireland. Dublin, Printed at the University Press by M.H. Gill.

Rushton, A. 1979. The real M’Coy. Lethaia 12: 226.

Wilson, M.A. 1985. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments at the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary (Carboniferous: Namurian) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 14: 69-80.

Wyse Jackson, P.N. and Monaghan, N.T. 1994. Frederick M’Coy: an eminent Victorian palaeontologist and his synopses of Irish palaeontology of 1844 and 1846. Geology Today 10: 231-234.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: An encrusted cobble from the Upper Ordovician of Kentucky

December 1st, 2013

Ordovician Kope Encrusted Concretion 111813In 1984 I pulled the above specimen from a muddy ditch during a pouring rain near the confluence of Gunpowder Creek and the Ohio River in Boone County, northern Kentucky. It changed my life.
crinoid bryozoan concretion 111813This limestone cobble eroded out of the Kope Formation, a shale-rich Upper Ordovician unit widely exposed in the tri-state area of Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. It probably is a burrow-filling, given its somewhat sinuous shape. As you can see in the closer view above, it is encrusted with crinoids (the circular holdfasts) and bryozoans of several types, including the sheet-like form in the upper left and the mass of little calcareous chains spread across the center of the view. There are also simple cylindrical borings called Trypanites scattered about.
OrdovicianEdrio113013There were other cobbles at this site as well, including the one imaged above. It shows an encrusting edrioasteroid (Cystaster stellatus, the disk with the star shape in the middle) and a closer view of those chain-like bryozoans (known as Corynotrypa).
Concretion reverse 111813Significantly, the underside of the cobble pictured at the top of the page is smooth and mostly unencrusted, showing just a few of the Trypanites borings. A closer look, though, would reveal highly-eroded remnants of bryozoans. This means that the cobble sat on the seafloor with its upper surface exposed long enough to collect mature encrusters and borers. It appears, though, that the cobbles were occasionally flipped over, killing the specimens now on the underside and exposing fresh substrate for new encrusters.

How did this cobble change my life? My wife Gloria and I were scouting field trip sites for my Invertebrate Paleontology course. I was a very new professor and needed localities for our upcoming travels. I thought I had seen enough during that wet and chilly day, but Gloria wanted to explore one more outcrop. Fine, I thought, we’ll stop here at this muddy ditch and she’ll be quickly convinced it was time to quit. As I stepped out of the car I saw this cobble immediately. Then we both saw that the ditch was full of them. They showed spectacular encrusting and boring fossils with exquisite preservation, but more importantly they demonstrated a process of ecological succession rarely if ever seen in the paleontological record. It led to two papers the following year that came out just before my first research leave in England. There my new interests in hard substrate organisms led me to my life-long friends and colleagues Paul Taylor and Tim Palmer. Since then we’ve published together dozens of papers on encrusters and borers, now known as sclerobionts, and used them to explore many questions of paleoecology and evolution.

Thank you, Gloria, for one more outcrop!


Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, M.A. 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103.

Wilson, M.A. 1985a. Disturbance and ecologic succession in an Upper Ordovician cobble-dwelling hardground fauna. Science 228: 575-577.

Wilson, M.A. 1985b. A taxonomic diversity measure for encrusting organisms. Lethaia 18: 166.

Wilson, M.A. and Palmer, T.J. 1992. Hardgrounds and Hardground Faunas. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Institute of Earth Studies Publications 9: 1-131.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A crinoid calyx from the Lower Carboniferous of Iowa

November 24th, 2013

Macrocrinus verneuilianus (Shumard, 1855) 585In honor of Echinoderm Week for my Invertebrate Paleontology course, we have a beautiful crinoid calyx (or crown, or just “head”) on a slab from the Burlington Limestone (Lower Carboniferous, Osagean) found near Burlington, Iowa. I inherited this fossil when I arrived at Wooster, so I have no idea who collected it or when. The handwritten number is similar to those on many of our 19th century specimens. The sharp features of the specimen have been a bit dulled by a preparation technique that probably involved abrasives.

The crinoid is Macrocrinus verneuilianus (Shumard, 1855) of the Order Monobathrida. It is unusual in that it is preserved with its filter-feeding arms intact, along with a magnificent anal tube (see closer view below).
Macrocrinus anal chimney 585The anal tube, sometimes called an anal chimney, is just what you guessed it would be — an anus at the end of a long pipe of calcitic plates. Its primary purpose was all about hygiene. The tube allowed waste products to be whisked away far from the mouth of the crinoid, which was at the base of the arms. Some researchers suggest that the long tube served another function as well: it may have helped stabilize and direct the filter-feeding fan of outstretched arms in a stiff current, something like the tail of an airplane or a panel on a weather vane.

Macrocrinus verneuilianus (Shumard, 1855) diagramFigure of Macrocrinus verneuilianus (9) from “Paleontology of Missouri” (1884) by Charles Rollin Keyes. That long anal tube is not exaggerated!
Shumard585Benjamin Franklin Shumard (1820-1869) named Macrocrinus verneuilianus in 1855. As you might have deduced from his name, Shumard was a Pennsylvanian, having been born in Lancaster. He received his bachelor’s degree from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and then later earned an MD in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1843. As a young doctor in Kentucky, he began to collect fossils as a hobby. After just three years of medicine, he gave it up to pursue a career as a geologist. (Those Kentucky fossils must have been particularly fine!) By 1848 he was on geological surveys for Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa, and in 1850 he went on a geological survey expedition to Oregon. (Imagine that trip in 1850.) In 1853 he became the paleontologist in the Missouri Geological Survey. In 1858 he left Missouri to begin the first Geological Survey in Texas. The Civil War must have caused him considerable pain, since he was a Pennsylvanian in Texas. He moved to St. Louis and renewed his medical career in 1861. In 1869, he decided to move south to New Orleans for health reasons. The steamship he took burned to the waterline one evening north of Vicksburg. He was safely rescued, but contracted pneumonia in the process. He returned quickly to St. Louis and there died at 49 years of age. At the time of his death Shumard was president of the St. Louis Academy of Science and a member of the Geological Societies of London, France, and Vienna, and he was also a member of the academies of science in Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and New Orleans. No doubt we would have had much more scientific accomplishment from this young paleontologist had he lived longer.


Ausich, W.I. 1999. Lower Mississippian Burlington Limestone along the Mississippi River Valley in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri, USA, p. 139-144. In: H. Hess, W.I. Ausich, C.E. Brett and M.J. Simms (eds.), Fossil Crinoids, Cambridge University Press.

Ausich, W.I. and Kammer, T.W. 2010. Generic concepts in the Batocrinidae Wachsmuth and Springer, 1881 (Class Crinoidea). Journal of Paleontology 84: 32-50.

Lane, N.G. 1963. Two new Mississippian camerate (Batocrinidae) crinoid genera. Journal of Paleontology 37: 691-702.

Shumard, B.F. 1855. Description of new species of organic remains. Missouri Geological Survey 2:185–208.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A long scleractinian coral from the Middle Jurassic of Israel

November 17th, 2013

Enallhelia_370_Callovian_Israel_585Just one image for this week’s fossil, but we make up for the numbers in image length! The above fossil with the alternating “saw teeth” is the scleractinian coral Enallhelia d’Orbigny, 1849. It is a rare component of the diverse coral fauna found in the Matmor Formation (Callovian-Oxfordian) in southern Israel. I collected this particular specimen (from locality C/W-370 in Hamakhtesh Hagadol, for the record) during this past summer’s expedition to the Negev. It is preserved remarkably well considering that its original aragonite skeleton has been completely calcitized.

Enallhelia is in the Family Stylinidae, also named by French naturalist Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d’Orbigny. (Love that name; he was briefly profiled in a previous entry.) There are many species in the genus (at least two dozen), but I can’t figure out which this one is. I’ll need a coral expert because half of the available species look pretty much the same to me. Enallhelia is a dendroid coral, meaning its corallum has tree-like branches, only one of which we see here. Each branch has alternating corallites on each side, which in life would have held the individual tentacular polyps. Each corallite has radial symmetry, not the usual hexameral symmetry as seen in most scleractinians. The genus ranges from the Jurassic into the Cretaceous and is cosmopolitan. Enallhelia is especially well known from Europe, but that may be just a collector effect.

What I like about Enallhelia is that it can be an excellent paleoenvironmental marker. Leinfelder and Nose (1997) show that it is most often found in “marly coral meadows” near storm wavebase on carbonate platforms. This means it is in shallow but quiet waters well within the photic zone most of the time, but may be occasionally disturbed by storm wave currents. This is an accurate description of most of the depositional environment of the Matmor Formation.


Hudson, R.G.S. 1958. The upper Jurassic faunas of southern Israel. Geological Magazine 95: 415-425.

Leinfelder, R.R. and Nose, M. 1997. Upper Jurassic coral communities within siliciclastic settings (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal): Implications for symbiotic and nutrient strategies. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 1755-1760.

Olivier, N., Martin-Garin, B., Colombié, C., Cornée, J.-J., Giraud, F., Schnyder, J., Kabbachi, B. and Ezaidi, K. 2012. Ecological succession evidence in an Upper Jurassic coral reef system (Izwarn section, High Atlas, Morocco). Geobios 45: 555-572.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A colonial scleractinian coral from the Pliocene of Cyprus

November 10th, 2013

Cladocora_585This week’s fossil is another from the collection made in 1996 on a Keck Geology Consortium expedition to Cyprus with Steve Dornbos as a Wooster student. Steve and I found a spectacular undescribed coral reef in the Nicosia Formation (Pliocene) near the village of Meniko (N 35° 5.767′, E 33° 8.925′). Finding a reef was a surprise because the unit is mostly quartz silt, which is not a sediment you usually associate with coral reefs. It was an advantage, though, because the silt was poorly lithified and could be easily removed from the fossils. The significance of this reef was that it represents the early recovery of marine faunas following the Messinian Salinity Crisis and the later refilling of the Mediterranean basin (the Zanclean Flood). Steve and I published our observations and analyses of this reef community in 1999.

The coral is a species of the genus Cladocora Ehrenberg, 1834. This genus, a member of the Family Caryophylliidae, ranges from the Late Cretaceous to today, so it is a hardy group. This may be because it is unusually diverse in its habits, ranging from the shallow subtidal down to at least 480 meters, and including both zooxanthellate (containing symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms called zooxanthellae) and azooxanthellate (with no such symbionts) species. Since our fossils lived in shallow water, they were almost certainly zooxanthellate.

(Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user Esculapio)

(Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user Esculapio)

Cladocora is still found today in the Mediterranean (see the above Cladocora caespitosa). Like all zooxanthellate scleractinian corals, these shallow species of Cladocora obtain their nutrition from the byproducts of their photosynthetic symbionts and a diet of small animals (mostly arthropods and larvae) they collect with their tentacles. These tentacles are lined with “stinging cells” called nematocysts.
CladocoraSpondylus_585Our Pliocene Cladocora formed the framework of a reef at least six meters high and 50 meters wide. It had many shelled organisms living entwined in the branches of the coral, like the bivalve Spondylus pictured above. You can see the corallites (individual tubes) embedded in the shell.
EhrenbergChristianGottfried_585Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) named the genus Cladocora from specimens in the Red Sea. He was a German naturalist and explorer who is often credited with founding the field of micropaleontology (the study of microfossils such as foraminiferans, ostracodes and diatoms). He earned an M.D. at the University of Berlin and remained on the university staff for his entire career. He was no homebody, though, traveling as a scientist throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East, Central Asia and Siberia. (His first expedition to the Middle East was an adventure, as you can read at the link.) He was the first to prove that fungi reproduce via spores, to describe the anatomy of corals, and to identify plankton as the source for marine phosphorescence. Ehrenberg was also the first to discover microfossils in rocks, noting that some rocks (like chalk) are made almost entirely of them. His best known books include Reisen in Aegypten, Libyen, Nubien und Dongola (1828; “Travels in Egypt, Libya, Nubia and Dongola”) and Die Infusionsthierchen als volkommene Organismen (1838; “The Infusoria as Complete Organisms”). That last concept (“volkommene Organismen” or “complete organisms”) was his idea that even the smallest organisms had all the working organs of the largest. That one didn’t go so well!


Cowper Reed, F.R. 1935. Notes on the Neogene faunas of Cyprus, III: the Pliocene faunas. Annual Magazine of Natural History 10 (95): 489-524.

Cowper Reed, F.R. 1940. Some additional Pliocene fossils from Cyprus. Annual Magazine of Natural History 11 (6): 293-297.

Dornbos, S.Q. and Wilson, M.A. 1999. Paleoecology of a Pliocene coral reef in Cyprus: Recovery of a marine community from the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 213: 103-118.

Citizen scientist to the rescue (in more ways than one)

November 9th, 2013

StephLizzie110913NEW LONDON, OHIO–The Wooster paleontologists spent a pleasant afternoon with our favorite amateur fossil collector Brian Bade. Brian has been mentioned in this blog previously for the many important fossils he has found and donated. He is a spectacular citizen scientist with a deep love (some would say obsession) with fossils of all kinds. He has a tremendous collection of fossils from the region and elsewhere carefully cataloged as to formations and localities. He knows what specimens may have scientific importance, and he has always been most generous with his time and fossils.

Today Steph Bosch (’14), Lizzie Reinthal (’14) and I visited Brian to examine specimens he recently collected from the Waldron Shale (Silurian) exposed in the St. Paul Stone Quarry in St. Paul, Indiana. My colleagues and I need to examine Silurian microconchids from North America and, sure enough, Brian came to the rescue with his collections and eagle eyes. Not only did he have his cleaned and sorted Waldron material laid out for us, he also had segregated specimens that had encrusting microconchids on them. The fossils were fantastic. Check out this webpage to get an idea of the paleontological diversity at this site.

Brian also brought out other trays and boxes of fossils from the Silurian and Early Devonian that had encrusters. Lizzie and Steph proved adept at picking out the tiny microconchids with their bare, young eyes as I struggled with my usual handlens. (This was the typical situation during our fieldwork in Israel this summer as well.) We accumulated several excellent specimens for later study under a Scanning Electron Microscope. Brian once again came through with critical fossils collected with all the right information for scientific analysis.

And the other rescue by Brian? You can see the situation in the image below. After all the driving I did in exotic places this summer, I managed to burrow into deep mud in Brian’s front yard. My little car was completely mired. (Note the smirking students in the background getting ready to tweet photos.) Brian has a tractor, fortunately enough, and a long chain. I left behind two deep trenches in his grass, and a little bit of my pride.

Wooster’s Fossils of the Week: Very common orthocerid nautiloids from the Siluro-Devonian of Morocco

November 3rd, 2013

Nautiloids585_092313If you’ve been to a rock shop, or even googled “fossil”, you’ve seen these beautiful and ubiquitous objects. They are polished sections through a nautiloid known as “Orthoceras“. We put quotes around the genus name because with these views it is nearly impossible to identify the actual genus, so “Orthoceras” becomes the go-to term for unknown orthoconic (straight) nautiloids. We also do not know exactly where in Morocco these fossils come from, but chances are they were dug out of the Orthoceras Limestone (Siluro-Devonian) exposed near Erfoud in the Ziz Valley near the edge of the Sahara Desert. They are easily excavated, take a nice polish, and look good from almost any angle of cut. People bring these to me often to ask about their origin, so let’s do a Fossil of the Week about the critters.

These fossil nautiloids consisted in life of a long, straight conical shell with internal chambers pierced by a long tube. The shells were originally made of aragonite, but almost all have been replaced and recrystallized with calcite. A squid-like animal produced the shell. Most of its body was in the large body chamber at the open end of the cone. They were effective nektic (swimming) predators during the Paleozoic Era around the world. In some places (like Morocco) nautiloids were so common that their dead shells carpeted shallow seafloors. Nautilus is a living descendant.
SingleNautiloid092313 annotatedIn this closer cross-sectional view of a Moroccan “Orthoceras“, we can identify the critical parts. A = a chamber (or camera); B = the siphuncle (tube running through the center of the shell); C = a septum that divides one chamber from another; D = an orthochoanitic (straight) septal neck of shell that runs briefly along the siphuncle. The white to gray material is crystalline (“sparry”) calcite that filled the empty shell after death and burial.

By the way, you can buy “Orthoceras healing stones“. A quote from that site: “Fossils are believed to increase life span, reduce toxins, anxiety, stress, balance the emotions, make one more confident. Containing supernatural and physical healing powers. They promote a sense of pride and success in business. Healers use fossils to enhance telepathy and stimulate the mind. Traditionally, fossils have been used to aid in  reducing tiredness, fatigue, digestive disorders, and rheumatism.” No wonder paleontologists are always the very image of health and wealth!
BRUGIEREThe genus Orthoceras was named in 1789 by the French zoologist (and physician) Jean Guillaume Bruguière (1749–1798). The only image I could find of him is the small one above. Bruguière earned a medical degree from the University of Montpellier in 1770, but like many aspiring naturalists, he never practiced. He traveled very widely for an 18th Century scientist, usually to pursue living and fossil mollusks on various expeditions. That he was a Republican in revolutionary France probably saved his head, but he lost his income in the turmoil. Most of his descriptions of fossil taxa appeared in print decades after he died on a voyage back from Persia. Of all his taxonomic contributions, the genus Orthoceras is the most widely known.


Histon, K. 2012. Paleoenvironmental and temporal significance of variably colored Paleozoic orthoconic nautiloid cephalopod accumulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367–368: 193–208.

Kröger B. 2008. Nautiloids before and during the origin of ammonoids in a Siluro-Devonian section in the Tafilalt, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Special Papers in Palaeontology 79, 110 pp.

Lubeseder, S. 2008. Palaeozoic low-oxygen, high-latitude carbonates: Silurian and Lower Devonian nautiloid and scyphocrinoid limestones of the Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 264: 195-209.

Wooster Geologists at GSA 2013: Last one standing

October 30th, 2013

And that would be me. This morning I gave a talk about a project Paul Taylor and I have been working on for about two years. In fact, it was about a year ago that I was in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History tracking down specimens for this study. (Thanks again, Kathy Hollis!) Our paper’s title:

Title103013Here is the link to our GSA abstract. It was a fun topic to talk about, and goodness knows I obsessed over the slides for a long time. I’m always pleased to showcase the Scanning Electron Microscopy skills of Paul Taylor:

Slide103013Now I have just a couple brief meetings, then a red-eye flight back to Ohio and home. I’ve now finished my 35th GSA meeting. I think I’m getting the system down.

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