Archive for the 'Uncategorized' Category

Return to the Silurian of New York

August 8th, 2015

1 Cichorium intybus SR 93 585LOCKPORT, NEW YORK (August 8, 2015) — Andrej and I began some deep collecting of Silurian localities in the Lockport area today in our survey of the bryozoan and sclerobiont faunas. The sites are, shall we say, not the most attractive, so let’s start with this common but gorgeous flower along the roadsides in western New York: Cichorium intybus (chicory). It is an invasive perennial from Europe that now has a global distribution. It has its uses as a coffee substitute, livestock feed, and salad stock. I love the color and serrated leaves.

2 Andrej Hickory CornersAnd here is why we lead with a flower. Andrej Ernst is sorting through samples from the Hickory Corners locality on State Route 93 in Lockport. The fossiliferous limestone here is the Hickory Corners Member of the Reynales Formation (Lower Silurian, Aeronian). The bryozoans are wonderfully diverse, and the top of the unit is a bored carbonate hardground. We happily collected here most of the morning, despite the trash and traffic.

3 Lewiston B beds Niagara RoadWe returned to a site along railroad tracks at Niagara Street in Lockport to collect from the Lewiston Member, part B, of the Rochester Shale. Again, the bryozoans here are fantastic, including my new favorite, a delicate cyclostome named Diploclema.

4 Lewiston E Burleigh Hill Shale LaFarge QuarryOur last site of the day was along the entrance road to a quarry. With all the surrounding rock, the only fossiliferous horizon is exposed in a shallow drainage cut in the road itself. Andrej is pulling a few bryozoans from the top of Lewiston Member, part E, of the Rochester Shale. The thick shales above him are the Burleigh Hill Formation.

5 Erie Canal at LockportWhen our work was done for the day, we became tourists and visited the Erie Canal locks in Lockport. (Hence the name!) This is a view looking east from the bottom of the two-lock sequence. We wanted to see the locks actually transport a boat, but it was a slow Saturday afternoon.

6 Erie Canal Lock LockportA view of the massive doors upstream of one of the modern locks. The engineering feats here date back to the early 1820s.

7 Crinoidal cross-sets Erie CanalGeology is evident here too. This is a block of crinoidal limestone showing cross-stratification. Many of the older buildings in Lockport are made of Silurian stone excavated to create the Erie Canal.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: Small and common orthid brachiopods from the Upper Ordovician of Ohio

August 7th, 2015

Cincinnetina meeki (Miller, 1875) slab 1 585
One of the many benefits of posting a “Fossil of the Week” is that I learn a lot while researching the highlighted specimens. I not only learn new things, I learn that some things I thought I knew must be, shall we say, updated. The above slab contains dozens of brachiopods (and a few crinoid ossicles and bryozoans). I have long called the common brachiopod here Onniella meeki. Now I learn from my colleagues Alycia Stigall and Steve Holland at their great Cincinnatian websites that since 2012 I should be referring to this species as Cincinnetina meeki (Miller, 1875). Jisuo Jin sorted out its taxonomy in a Palaeontology article three years ago:

Phylum: Brachiopoda
Class: Rhynchonellata
Order: Orthida
Family: Dalmanellidae
Genus: Cincinnetina
Species: Cincinnetina meeki (Miller, 1875)
Cincinnetina meeki (Miller, 1875) slab 2 585This slab, which resides in our Geology 200 teaching collection, was found at the famous Caesar Creek locality in southern Ohio. It is from the Waynesville/Bull Fork Formation and Richmondian (Late Ordovician) in age.
Cincinnetina meeki (Miller, 1875) slab 3 585You may see some bryozoans in this closer view. This bed is a typical storm deposit in the Cincinnatian Group. The shells were tossed about, most landing in current-stable conditions, and finer sediments were mostly washed away, leaving this skeletal lag.


Jin, J. 2012. Cincinnetina, a new Late Ordovician dalmanellid brachiopod from the Cincinnati type area, USA: implications for the evolution and palaeogeography of the epicontinental fauna of Laurentia. Palaeontology 55: 205–228.

A day’s excursion into the Middle Devonian of western New York

August 7th, 2015

1 Wanakah at Buffalo CreekLOCKPORT, NEW YORK (August 7, 2015) — Today Andrej Ernst and I were able to join Brian Bade and his friends on a collecting trip up Buffalo Creek in Erie County, New York. Our goal was simply to look for interesting fossils in the Wanakah Shale Member of the Ludlowville Formation (Middle Devonian) and enjoy the fellowship of fossil enthusiasts. Success on both counts. It was a great day, and rather fun wading through the cool waters of the creek as we examined the shale on the banks.

2 Wanakah TrilobiteHere is an external mold of a trilobite in the soft Wanakah Shale. An external mold is an impression of the exterior of the organism. If you look at this upside-down it pops into reverse relief! This fossil is not recoverable because it would break into bits with any attempt to hammer it out. Andrej and I found plenty of bryozoans here, along with other cool fossils.

3 Bethany Center Centerfield LimestoneAs a bonus we also were able to visit the Bethany Center exposure of the Centerfield Limestone, also Middle Devonian. There isn’t much left of the exposure, as you can see, but we still found numerous encrusting organisms (sclerobionts) on brachiopods and the abundant rugose corals. We also got plenty of sun here.

Team Utah 2015

August 6th, 2015

Guest bloggers: Julia Franceschi and Mary Reinthal

What do you get when you have zero cloud coverage, 90-degree heat, and a desert? Aside from the start of a bad joke, you get a snippet of the College of Wooster geology’s 2015 expedition to Black Rock desert Utah. It was here that some of the College’s senior geology students—Krysden Schantz, Michael Williams, and Kelli Baxstrom—collected some sunburns and samples for their Senior Independent Studies. These research projects range anywhere from trying to figure out the date of the lava flow to mechanisms of emplacement (e.g., channelized vs. inflated flows). Some of the students that went, however, went because they were able-bodied field assistants who could handle the heat. Geology major Julia Franceschi said this about her field assisting experience:

“Utah was extremely hot and there were some days (and by some days I mean everyday) where 3 liters of water were not enough. But we managed to get a lot of good data, even though my boots took a beating (R.I.P). ”

Chloe Wallace and Julia Franceschi use the Trimble GPS to make cm-scale measurements of the topography.

Chloe Wallace and Julia Franceschi use the Trimble GPS to make cm-scale measurements of the topography.

When the plane finally landed in Salt Lake City, Utah, a 2 ½ hour drive took the crew to Fillmore, the location of their field site. The first day, Friday, started around 11AM, but the crew learned quickly that the earlier they started, the less intense the sun (and heat) was.

Team Utah meeting to distribute equipment and plan the field day.

Team Utah meeting to distribute equipment and plan the field day.

Like for most groups, the first day was devoted as a get-accustomed-to-the-field day, that entailed some reconnaissance and exploration. The rest of the week was spent doing eight hours a day of research and studies. According to Dr. Meagen Pollock, walking on a’a is “nonsense” and more often than not, each day was faced with new challenges. Chloe Wallace and Julia conducted high resolution GPS location and elevation data. Dan Misinay took photographs and helped Krysden conduct transects to record vegetative cover. Michael and Kelli spent most of their days mapping the area and attempting to understand volcanic features. Some days, however, were graced with the occasional snake or rainbow to change up the scenery. It was a successful trip.

One of our lizard friends.

One of our lizard friends.

A snake friend, warming itself in the morning sun. Photo credit: Dan Misinay

A snake friend, warming itself in the morning sun. Photo credit: Dan Misinay

Kelli and Dr. Judge measuring striae.

Kelli and Dr. Judge measuring striae.

Krysden is in her element among the lavas.

Krysden is in her element among the lavas. Photo Credit: Dan Misinay

Contemplating lava emplacement clearly brings joy to Michael.

Contemplating lava emplacement clearly brings joy to Michael. Photo Credit: Dan Misinay

Dan helps Krysden with her vegetation survey.

Dan helps Krysden with her vegetation survey.

We were treated to a double rainbow over our field site after a light sprinkle in the desert.

We were treated to a double rainbow over our field site after a light sprinkle in the desert.

And a show of wild flowers! Photo Credit: Kelli Baxstrom

And a show of wild flowers! Photo Credit: Kelli Baxstrom

Team Utah proudly representing Wooster Geologists!

Team Utah proudly representing Wooster Geologists!

Into the Niagara Gorge

August 6th, 2015

1 Lewiston-Queenston Bridge 080615LOCKPORT, NEW YORK (August 6, 2015) — It holds one of the strongest river currents in the world, the gorge of the Niagara River below Niagara Falls. That tremendous flow has cut a deep canyon through the Silurian rocks of the region, providing a superb opportunity for geologists to see the local stratigraphy and paleontology. Today our team walked into the gorge from Lewiston, New York, to explore the section. Carl Brett was our guide. Above is a view of the gorge at the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge that joins the USA on the right with Canada on the left. The forests are plenty dense, but there are rocks in those steep walls.

2 Gorge trailWe hiked along the Gorge Trail on the USA side upriver from Lewiston. The trail is actually an old road built for transport of construction materials used for the hydroelectric dams upriver.

3 Gorge block 080615We learned most of the geological context by examining fallen blocks along the trail. This was an interesting way to see the stratigraphy because the different formations dropped blocks randomly along the path.

4 AE080615I tried to get a surreptitious picture of my German colleague Andrej Ernst.

5 Grimsby crossbedsThe Grimsby Formation (Lower Silurian, Llandoverian) is a sandstone that has numerous sedimentary structures, including nice cross-sets.

6 Kinneyia Grimsby Niagara GorgeAndrej found this nice specimen of an enigmatic feature called Kinneyia. It may be a function of gas build-up underneath microbial mats on the ancient seafloor. I’ve always called it “elephant skin”.

7 Niagara Gorge section 080615A view of the gorge wall above us.

8 Rochester collecting Niagara GorgeWhen the trail reached the Rochester Shale, we spent some time searching it for fossils. The most common finds were cystoids (especially Caryocrinites) and the odd coronoid Stephanocrinus.

9 Andrej Carl 080615Andrej Ernst and Carl Brett on the Rochester Shale outcrop in the Niagara Gorge. Andrej noted many neglected bryozoans in the fossil fauna exposed here.

10 Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating StationsOur final stop was opposite the Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations built on the Canadian side of the gorge. It is an awesome feat of engineering, and a prodigious amount of concrete.

We had an excellent time in the Niagara Gorge. I was at last able to see some of the nuances of Silurian stratigraphy that Carl Brett was explaining. As you can see, the weather was ideal.

We said goodbye to Carl at the end of the day as he departed for fieldwork in nearby southern Ontario.


Wooster Geologist in New York

August 5th, 2015

1 Calebs Quarry 080515LOCKPORT, NEW YORK (August 5, 2015) — What looks like an ordinary commercial quarry above is actually quite unusual. It is an excavation done entirely by amateur paleontologists (“citizen scientists”) to collect and preserve fossils from the Rochester Shale (Upper Silurian, Wenlockian). The story of Caleb’s Quarry is well told in the linked American Museum of Natural History article. It is near Lockport, New York, and one of the most famous fossil sites in the region. I’m lucky to be here.

This late summer expedition to New York is to help my German friend Andrej Ernst (University of Hamburg/University of Kiel) collect bryozoans from the Rochester Shale. This bryofauna is inadequately described for phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses, so Andrej has a grant to do the deed from outcrop sampling to preparation, analysis and publication. While assisting Andrej, I am also scouting out new localities for future geology Senior Independent Study projects at Wooster. We will be in Niagara and Erie Counties for a week doing this work.

2 CarlCalebsAbsolutely critical to the project is the field advice and direction of Carl Brett (University of Cincinnati). Carl is without peer when it comes to many paleontological and geological topics, but for the Silurian of New York he is one of the gods. Carl grew up in the region and has been studying the rocks and fossils since he was a young teenager. He gave us two days of magnificent stratigraphic instruction, and he introduced us to the amateur team digging at Caleb’s Quarry. We were also joined for three days by Brian Bade, a citizen scientist from Ohio with an extraordinary passion for fossils, along with deep knowledge and appreciation for how science works.

3 FredandCarlCalebsFred Barber, one of the excavators at Caleb’s Quarry, is here showing Carl Brett magnificent crinoids collected from this locality.

4 Crinoid Calebs 080515The gray shale matrix is homogenous and soft enough to be removed from the fossil by an expert preparator. This crinoid shows outstanding preservation down to the pinnules on its arms.

5 Bryozoan Calebs reconstructedOf course, Andrej and I are most interested in the bryozoans from Caleb’s Quarry. Here is a beautiful specimen that has been carefully reconstructed.

6 StriispiriferCalebsI found these brachiopod-rich beds intriguing. Striispirifer is a new name to me.

7 DalmanTriloCalebsTrilobites are always the stars of Paleozoic fossil sites like this. While we were at the quarry we watched one of the excavators (Kent Smith) unearth this gorgeous specimen. I believe it is Dalmanites limulurus.

8 ChondritesCalebsThe trace fossils here are very interesting. There may be project possibilities with this ichnofauna because of the diversity present at the quarry and the bedding plane exposures. This is the trace fossil Chondrites.

9 Jungle Jeddo tributaryAfter our quarry visit today we then stopped at some other exposures of the Rochester Shale. This scene shows what fieldwork is like without quarries and roadcuts! We are here along a tributary of Jeddo Creek, at the top of Lewiston Member B of the Rochester Shale. Hard to tell, eh?

10 Brian Jeddo Tributary Lewiston BHere Brian Bade is examining a deeply weathered section along the creek. Years ago Carl Brett took advantage of this disaggregation of the Rochester Shale to sieve the sediment for small fossils. He has generously given us the “washings” from this cut, which represent months of his work as a graduate student. They are loaded with tiny bryozoan bits, along with many other taxa.

11 Cherokee UnconformityWe ended the day with a look at several other outcrops in the Lockport area. The impressive contact here between the massive sandstone and the underlying red shales is called the Cherokee Unconformity. It is a megasequence boundary correlated across most of North America. It was thought until recently to be the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, but now all you see in this image is considered latest Ordovician.


Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A conulariid revisited (Lower Carboniferous of Indiana)

July 31st, 2015

Conulariid03 585

This summer I’ve been updating some of the photos I placed in the Wikipedia system (check them out here, if you like; free to use for any purpose). I was especially anxious to replace a low-resolution image I had made of an impressive conulariid (Paraconularia newberryi) from the Lower Carboniferous of Indiana. The new version is above. Since I used the same specimen as a Fossil of the Week exactly four years ago to the day, I thought I’d take advantage of a slow summer and update that earlier text for this week:

I have some affection for these odd fossils, the conulariids. When I was a student in the Invertebrate Paleontology course taught Dr. Richard Osgood, Jr., I did my research paper on them. I had recently found a specimen in the nearby Lodi City Park that was so different from anything I had seen that I wanted to know much more. I championed the then controversial idea that they were extinct scyphozoans (a type of cnidarian including most of what we call today the jellyfish). That is now the most popular placement for these creatures today, although I arrived at the same place mostly by luck and naïveté.

The specimen above is Paraconularia newberryi (Winchell) found somewhere in Indiana and added to the Wooster fossil collections before 1974. A close view (below) shows the characteristic ridges with a central seam on each side.

Conulariid01 585Conulariids range from the Ediacaran (about 550 million years ago) to the Late Triassic (about 200 million years ago). They survived three major extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian), which is remarkable considering the company they kept in their shallow marine environments suffered greatly. Why they went extinct in the Triassic is a mystery.

ConulataThe primary oddity about conulariids is their four-fold symmetry. They had four flat sides that came together something like an inverted and extended pyramid. The wide end was opened like an aperture, although sometimes closed by four flaps. Preservation of some soft tissues shows that tentacles extended from this opening. Their exoskeleton was made of a leathery periderm with phosphatic strengthening rods rather than the typical calcite or aragonite. (Some even preserve a kind of pearl in their interiors.) Conulariids may have spent at least part of their life cycle attached to a substrate as shown below, and maybe also later as free-swimming jellyfish-like forms.

It is the four-fold symmetry and preservation of tentacles that most paleontologists see as supporting the case for a scyphozoan placement of the conulariids. Debates continue, though, with some seeing them as belonging to a separate phylum unrelated to any cnidarians. This is what’s fun about extinct and unusual animals — so much room for speculative conversations!


Driscoll, E.G. 1963. Paraconularia newberryi (Winchell) and other Lower Mississippian conulariids from Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Iowa. Contributions from the Museum of Palaeontology, The University of Michigan 18: 33-46.

Hughes, N.C., Gunderson, G.D. and Weedon, M.J. 2000. Late Cambrian conulariids from Wisconsin and Minnesota. Journal of Paleontology 74: 828-838.

Sendino, C., Zagorsek, K. and Taylor, P.D. 2012. Asymmetry in an Ordovician conulariid cnidarian. Lethaia, 45: 423-431.

Van Iten, H.T., Simoes, M.G., Marques, A.C. and Collins, A.G. 2006. Reassessment of the phylogenetic position of conulariids (?Vendian–Triassic) within the subphylum Medusozoa (Phylum Cnidaria). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 4, 109–118.


Glacier Bay 2015

July 30th, 2015

Guest Blogger: Dan Misinay

This summer Dr. Wiles, Nick, Jesse Wiles, and myself traveled to Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. We spent our six days in upper Muir Inlet at Wolf Point. Our purpose this summer was to bridge a crucial gap in the tree ring record around 1700-2000 years B.P. As well as bridging the tree ring record gap, we are aiming to provide a better glacial history for the region. While we were there, we collected 22 sections and 13 cores. The sections and cores are sitka spruce and mountain hemlock. We collected samples from McBride Inlet, Wolf Point Creek, Nunatak Mountain, White Thunder Ridge, and Stump Cove. We also scouted some other promising areas for future projects. All pictures used in this blog were taken by Jesse Wiles.

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Our first day in the park at McBride Inlet. The large icebergs in the background are everywhere in the inlet due to the constant calving of McBride Glacier.


More icebergs that are washed up on shore during low tide at McBride.


A large spruce stump in situ in a large delta at McBride with Nick for scale. McBride Glacier is faintly visible in the background around the corner.


Me searching for logs and taking note of the sedimentology of the delta at McBride.

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Our second day led us on a strenuous trek through wolf point to get to a promising lake. On the way to the lake we found a nice moose shed in a creek.

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Me crashing through the young alder at the shore of the lake at Wolf Point.

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After determining that the lake was too much for us to cross in a day, we headed back through a decent size stream. Me knee deep preparing to go back into the brush because of a large set of rapids ahead.

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Once the clouds and rain subsided, the days and evenings were very clear and the alpine glow on the mountains was a nightly occurrence.

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Days 3 and 4 were spent at the Nunatak Mountain and fan because on our  first attempt we were unable to cross a stream to access the alluvial fan. Nick and I walking along a stream and glacial moraine.

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When we finally made it to the Nunatak Fan on day 4 we found a nice selection of detrital logs through out the fan. Nick and Dr. Wiles core a detrital log while I watch.

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Since day 5 fell on the Fourth of July, Dr. Wiles decided to have tourist day. We went up the inlet and visited Riggs Glacier. We kayaked around 12 miles up and down the inlet.

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Before we made it to Riggs Glacier, we stopped at an alluvial fan along the inlet at White Thunder Ridge. We found some nice logs. This is an example of a section that was taken from White Thunder Ridge.

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Day 6, which was our final full day in the field, we went to Stump Cove. This is a picture of the delta at the bottom of the alluvial fan at stump cove.

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Nick taking a core of the only other in situ stump we found. The stump was about half way up the large delta at Stump Cove.

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One of the grizzly bears we saw while in the park. This was a smaller bear that we saw at Stump Cove walking the shore line. The bears usually came out at low tide to feed on any organisms that got washed up on the shore. They also flip rocks to find food like this bear was doing in the picture.

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A nice picture of a humpback whale tail we saw on the last day while boating back to the National Park station. While boating in the the inlet, we saw a lot of humpback whale fins and breaches. However, we did not see any orca (killer whale).

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A calcareous sponge from the Lower Cretaceous of England

July 24th, 2015

Raphidonema faringdonense 070715a 585One of my favorite fossil localities is a gravel pit in Oxfordshire, England. Gravel pits are not usually good for fossil collecting given their coarse nature and high-energy deposition, but the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Faringdon Sponge Gravels are special. They are tidal gravels sitting unconformably over Jurassic rocks that have an extraordinary diversity and abundance of marine fossils, both from the Cretaceous and reworked from the Jurassic below. I have previously described in this blog bored cobbles, bryozoans, ammonites and a plesiosaur vertebra from this unit. Above is one of the most characteristic fossils from Faringdon, the calcareous sponge Raphidonema faringdonense (Sharpe, 1854).
Raphidonema faringdonense 070715b 585This is a view of the upper surface of this sponge. Like most sponges it was a filter-feeder sitting stationary on the seafloor. This one was probably attached to a cobble in the gravel. It is in the Class Calcarea because it has a fused network of calcitic spicules making up its skeleton. This is why it has remained a very resistant, rigid object long after death. It probably spent some time rolling around in those gravels with the tidal currents.
Sophie Faringdon 2007The Faringdon Sponge Gravels are a member of the Faringdon Sand Formation. They are cross-bedded gravels that have been mined for construction purposes since Roman times. Above is Wooster Geologist Sophie Lehmann (as a student) when she and I visited one of the gravel pits in 2007. For the record, this sponge comes from the Red Gravel, 5.5-8.5 meters above the disconformity with Oxfordian limestones, in the Wicklesham gravel pit on the southeast edge of Faringdon, Oxfordshire (51.647112° N, 1.585094° W).

after Maull & Polyblank, photogravure, circa 1856

Daniel Sharpe FRS (1806-1856) named Raphidonema faringdonense in 1854. He was born in Marylebone, Middlesex, England. His mother died shortly after his birth and he was raised by his uncle Samuel Rogers, a literary figure of some merit. He entered the mercantile business as an apprentice when he was 16, and he stayed connected with trading the rest of his life. His first research as a geologist (and this was very early in the discipline of geology) was examining geological structures around Lisbon, Portugal. He then studied the strata of north Wales and the Lake District of England. Sharpe was an early opponent of Adam Sedgwick in a dispute over the Cambrian, which brought him some notoriety among English geologists. His most prominent geological work was sorting out what rock cleavage meant in regard to stress and strain, using distorted fossils as part of his evidence. He died as the result of a riding accident in 1856, shortly after he had been elected president of the Geological Society of London.

Sorting out the taxonomic history of Raphidonema faringdonense is more complex than I would have expected for such a simple fossil. I’m using the most common version of the name, but we also see “farringdonense“, “faringdonensis” and farringdonensis“. (I know. Who worries about such things?)
Manon farringdonense Sharpe figuresManon farringdonense description 1854Above are Sharpe’s original figures of Raphidonema faringdonense, along with his description (and the nice bryozoan Reptoclausa hagenowi below). We can see that he spelled the species name with a double r in keeping with a common spelling of the village’s name then. I don’t know when we lost one of those letters.

Just to add to the complexity, Raphidonema is also the genus name of a filamentous green alga. Since it is not an animal, though, there is no legal problem with having the name also refer to a sponge. (There should be a rule against such homonymy, but there’s not.)


Austen, R.A.C. 1850. On the age and position of the fossiliferous sands and gravels of Faringdon. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 6: 454-478.

Lhwyd, E. 1699. Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia. 139 pp. London.

Pitt, L.J. and Taylor, P.D. 1990. Cretaceous Bryozoa from the Faringdon Sponge Gravel (Aptian) of Oxfordshire. Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History. Geology 46: 61-152.

Sharpe, D. 1854. On the age of the fossiliferous sands and gravels of Farringdon and its neighbourhood. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 10: 176-198.

Wilson, M. A. (1986). Coelobites and spatial refuges in a Lower Cretaceous cobble-dwelling hardground fauna. Palaeontology, 29(4), 691-703.

Team Columbia returns in high spirits with bountiful samples!

July 22nd, 2015

I.S. students, Kaitlin and Maddie enjoying the sunshine and representing Wooster below a fascinating ice tunnel.

I.S. students, Kaitlin and Maddie enjoying the sunshine and representing Wooster below a fascinating ice tunnel.

Guest Bloggers: Maddie Happ and Kaitlin Starr (Girdwood, Alaska)

Team Columbia is back from an exciting 8 days in the field.  Dr.Wiles, Nick Wiesenberg, Maddie Happ and Kaitlin Starr traveled via helicopter to Columbia Bay, Alaska beginning July 15th and returning July 21st. The first half of the trip was spent on the West Branch of Columbia Bay. Despite rainy days and blustery winds, we accomplished quite a bit of work! During our time on the West Branch, the team updated an old growth site, known as the Rock Tor, and collected samples from another living tree site near Kadin Lake. In addition to these living tree samples, the team collected cores and cross sections from newly exposed wood that were killed during the initial advance of Columbia Glacier.

    Kaitlin recording sample numbers and GPS locations at our first site.

Kaitlin recording sample numbers and GPS locations at our first site.

On July 18th, we were transferred across the bay to a location known as the Land Lobe. The team created base camp on the Great Nunatak side of the Land Lobe, as opposed to past years when groups were limited to the moraine due to the previous glacier terminus. Finally, the weather gods were on our side, and abundant sunshine allowed for productive days. We collected samples from the fans surrounding our base camp. On our last night in Columbia, we climbed to the tree line to update another living tree site titled the Son of the Great Nunatak. The alpine forest made for a wonderful last dinner in the Alaskan wilderness. On our final morning (with great weather still hanging on), Dr.Wiles and Nick recieved helicopter support to jump across the river to the other side of the Land lobe, where they collected newly exposed samples to complete a previously sampled site.


Team Columbia enjoying sunshine and exploring sites at our second camp near the Great Nunatak.

Team Columbia encountered a few minor setbacks throughout the trip, including gritty oatmeal, killer porcupines, and constant stumbling (particularly near waterfalls); however, it was a fabulous adventure overall! I.S. students, Maddie and Kaitlin are excited to return to the Wooster Tree Ring Lab and begin exploring the great stories behind these logs.

    Photo of the East Branch of Columbia Glacier captured from the helicopter.

Photo of the East Branch of Columbia Glacier captured from the helicopter.

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