Archive for June 26th, 2015

Shikotan Island Tree Ring Chronology

June 26th, 2015

Guest blogger: Xiangyu Li

As one of the most militarized islands, because of the dispute between Japan and Russia (the Kuril Islands dispute), Shikotan Island has remained a mystery to the world of tree rings and climate studies until now.

1447443_original Figure 1. Deserted Russian tank on Shikotan island (from

Shikotan Island directly on the margin between the Pacific and Eurasian Plates. This special location indicates that this island is greatly influenced by geological factors, such as tsunami, earthquake, and large changes in climate (see photos below).


Figure 2. Big crack after the Shikotan Island earthquake of 1994.

see ice

Figure 3. Shikotan Island surrounded by sea ice (Wikipedia).

In order to better define the climate history of the Island in 2014 Russian geologist E. Dolgova and M. Alexandrin collected core samples from larch, spruce and fir trees on Shikotan islands.


Figure 4. Location of  collection sites of all Shikotan cores. The island is approximately 30 km long (image from GooglEarth).

The purpose of this research is to find the climate information from these cores. These cores are properly sanded and marked. Forty six cores were collected from Shikotan Island and 20 were used to construct the chronology for this island.


Figure 5. Family picture of all cores in the chronology

As we can see, some cores are less than 100 years old and some cores can be dated back to 18th century. Despite the age difference these 20 cores correlate with each other well.The purpose of this research is to extract climate information from these cores. These cores are properly sanded and marked by year. Forty six cores were collected from Shikotan Island and 20 were used to construct the chronology for this island.

standardized tree ring indices

The tree ring width can be influenced by various factors other than climate signal, such as the growth trends and natural competition. The growth trends is the major factor that we want to eliminate. The above picture shows us the standardized tree ring measurements by removing the growth trends. The blue line is the sample size. This is the first tree-ring record from Shikotan Island.

Final copy

The standardized ring width chronology has a slight downward trend since 1900. I compared the standardized tree ring data with the meteorological data from Nemuro station (130 years long). It appears that September temperature has a strong negative correlation with the tree ring width. The correlation is 0.43, which is far above the 99% confidence level. The reason for such negative correlation is unknown, however, it may be related to changes in sea ice extent.

In addition to examining the correlation between ring width and temperature, I focused on the possible relationship between tree ring width and natural hazards, such as tsunami and earthquake.

After looking at the tsunami occurrence data from NOAA, I found that sometimes tsunami corresponded with a year of rapid growth. For example, in 1963, there are two tsunamis on Shikotan Island and some cores has a bigger growth this year compared to the year before. Photos below are two cores that show the correlation with the tsunami record and there are more cores have a correlation with the tsunami record. This relationship is under investigation.


Figure 6. Core K02E5B


Figure 7 K02E7B

Last day of fieldwork in England: A working quarry and another great unconformity

June 26th, 2015

1 Doulting quarry sawBRISTOL, ENGLAND (June 26, 2015) — Tim Palmer has a professional interest in building stones, and a passion for sorting out their characteristics and historical uses. He thus has many contacts in the stone industry, from architects to quarry managers. This morning we visited the Doulting Stone Quarry on the outskirts of Doulting near Shepton Mallet in Somerset. Here a distinctive facies of the Jurassic Inferior Oolite is excavated for a variety of purposes. The rock has a lovely color, is relatively easy to work, and is durable. Above is a quarry saw that cuts out huge blocks from the natural exposure.

2 Thalassinoides layer DoultingSuch sawing produces great cross-sections for geologists to examine. We were particularly interested in that light-colored unit above with the irregular top and dark sediment-filled holes. The holes are part of a network of Thalassinoides burrows (tunnels made by Jurassic crustaceans) and reduce the value of the rock as a building stone. There is thus lots of it laying around the quarry yard for study.

3 Pinnid likely Trichites cross section DoultingOne impressive fossil exposed by the sawing is this pinnid bivalve, probably Trichites.

4 Burrow fill sediments DoultingThe Thalassinoides burrows are filled with a poorly-cemented sediment. It is full of little fossils, so we collected a bag of it for microscopic examination. It may give us clues as to what communities lived on the surface of this burrowed unit when it was part of the Jurassic seafloor.

5 shaping saw DoultingWe had a tour of the quarry shops, which included seeing these giant rock saws in action. Many of the saws are controlled by computers, so elaborate cuts can be made.

6 Medieval stone breaking marksThis rock has been quarried since Roman times, so there is over 2000 years of stone working here. The quarry owner set aside this rock face which shows chisel marks made in Medieval times. Wooden wedges were jammed into chiseled channels and then pulled over days to eventually crack the stone free.

7 Tedbury Camp wavecut surface along strikeAfter the quarry visit, Tim Palmer and I tromped through the woods and eventually found (with the help of several locals) an exposure known as Tedbury Camp. It is another Jurassic-on-Carboniferous unconformity like we saw at Ogmore-By-Sea earlier in the week. A century ago quarry workers cleared off this surface of Carboniferous limestone. It is a wave-cut platform on which Jurassic sediments (the Inferior Oolite) were deposited. The surface has many geological delights, including faults, drag folds, differentially-weathered cherts and carbonates, and Jurassic borings and encrusters. Beautiful.

8 wavecut surface foldingIn this view of the surface you may be able to see the odd folding of the dark chert layers in the right middle of the image. These seem to be drag folds along a fault. They clearly predate the Jurassic erosion of the limestone surface. The overlying Jurassic can be seen in the small outcrop on the left near Tim.

9 section view of wavecut surfaceIn this cross-section of the erosional surface you can clearly see we’re working with an angular unconformity.

10 filled borings wavecutTrypanites borings are abundant across this surface, most filled with lighter Jurassic sediment. There are other borings here too that deviate from the straight, cylindrical nature of Trypanites.

11 curved borings wavecutI don’t know yet how to classify these curved borings. They resemble Palaeosabella.

12 Encrusting bivalve wavecutHere is a Jurassic bivalve attached to the Carboniferous limestone at the unconformity. Most of the encrusters have been eroded away.

13 Tim on wavecut platformThere are many possibilities for further study of the Tedbury Camp unconformity. This was a productive site for our last field visit in England this year. Thank you very much to Tim Palmer, seated above, for his expertise, great companionship, and generosity with his time. It was a reminder of how much fun we had together in the field twenty years ago.

My month of geology in the United Kingdom has now come to an end. My next two days will be devoted to packing up and making the long train and then plane flights home. What a wonderful time I had, as did my students on the earlier part of the trip, Mae Kemsley and Meredith Mann. Thank you again to Paul Taylor for his work with us in Scarborough. I am very fortunate with my fine British friends.

For the record, the important locality coordinates from this trip —

GPS 089: Millepore Bed blocks N54.33877°, W00.42339°

GPS 090: Spindle Thorn Member, Hundale Point N54.16167°, W00.23326°

GPS 091: Robin Hood’s Bay N54.41782°, W00.52501°

GPS 092: Northern limit of Speeton Clay N54.16654°, W00.24567°

GPS 093: Northern limit of Red Chalk N54.15887°, W00.22261°

GPS 094: South section Filey Brigg N54.21674°, W00.26922°

GPS 095: North section Filey Brigg N54.21823°, W00.26904°

GPS 096: Filey Brigg N54.21560°, W00.25842°

GPS 097: D6 of Speeton Clay N54.16635°, W00.24520°

GPS 098: C Beds of Speeton Clay N54.16518°, W00.24226°

GPS 099: Lower B Beds of Speeton Clay N54.16167°, W0023326°

GPS 100: Possible A Beds of Speeton Clay N54.16129°, W00.23207°

GPS 101: A/B Beds of Speeton Clay N54.16035°, W00.22910°

GPS 102: C7E layer of Speeton Clay N54.16447°, W00.24043°

GPS 103: Lavernock Point N51.40589°, W03.16947°

GPS 104: Triassic deposits, Ogmore-By-Sea N51.46543°, W03.64094°

GPS 105: Sutton Stone Unconformity N51.45480°, W03.62609°

GPS 106: Sample of lowermost Sutton Stone N51.45455°, W03.62545°

GPS 107: Nash Point N51.40311°, W03.56212°

GPS 108; Devil’s Chimney N51.86402°, W02.07905°

GPS 109: Fiddler’s Elbow N51.82584°, W02.16541°

GPS 110: Doulting Stone Quarry N51.18993°, W02.50245°

GPS 111: Tedbury Camp unconformity N51.23912°, W02.36515°


Wooster’s Fossils of the Week: An encrusted bivalve external mold from the Upper Ordovician of Indiana

June 26th, 2015

1 Anomalodonta gigantea Waynesville Franklin Co IN 585I love this kind of fossil, which explains why you’ve seen so many examples on this blog. We are looking at an encrusted external mold of the bivalve Anomalodonta gigantea found in the Waynesville Formation exposed in Franklin County, Indiana. I collected it many years ago as part of an ongoing study of this kind of preservation and encrustation.
2 Anomalodonta gigantea Waynesville Franklin Co IN 585 annotatedTo tell this story, I’ve lettered the primary interest areas on image above. First, an external mold is an impression of the exterior of an organism. In this case we have a triangular clam with radiating ribs in its shell. The exterior of the shell with its ribs was buried in sediment and the shell dissolved, leaving the basic impression above. It is a negative relief. Please now refer to the letters for the close-up images below.

3 Bryo Anomalodonta gigantea Waynesville Franklin Co INA. At the distal end of the bivalve mold is what looks at first to be the original shell. It is calcitic, though, and we know this bivalve had an aragonitic shell. A closer look shows that this is actually the attaching surface of an encrusting bryozoan that bioimmured the original bivalve shell, which has since dissolved away. This smooth surface is the bryozoan underside; we see the characteristic zooecia (tubes holding the individual zooids) only when this surface is weathered away.

4 Borings Anomalodonta gigantea Waynesville Franklin Co INB. These tubular objects are infillings of borings (maybe Trypanites)that were cut into the original aragonitic shell of the bivalve. The tunnels of the borings were filled with fine sediment, and then the shell dissolved away, leaving these casts of the borings.

5 Inarticulate scar Anomalodonta gigantea Waynesville Franklin Co INC and D. In the middle of the external mold is this curious circular feature (C) mostly surrounded by a bryozoan (D). There was at one time a circular encruster, likely an inarticulate brachiopod like Petrocrania, that sat directly on the external mold surface. The bryozoan colony grew around but not over it because it was alive and still opening and closing its valves for feeding. The bryozoan built a vertical sheet of skeleton around it as a kind of sanitary wall. You may be able to see the other three or four structures in the top image showing brachiopod encrusters that left the building. This is an example of fossils showing us a living relationship, even if one is not longer preserved.

This fossil and its sclerobionts (hard substrate dwellers) show us that soon after the bivalve died its aragonitic shell dissolved away, leaving as evidence the external mold in the sediment, the bioimmuring bryozoan, and the boring casts. Very soon thereafter bryozoans and brachiopods encrusted the available hard substrate. This is a typical example of early aragonite dissolution on the sea floor during a Calcite Sea interval.


Palmer, T.J. and Wilson, M.A. 2004. Calcite precipitation and dissolution of biogenic aragonite in shallow Ordovician calcite seas. Lethaia 37: 417-427.

Taylor, P.D. 1990. Preservation of soft-bodied and other organisms by bioimmuration—a review. Palaeontology 33: 1-17.

Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, M.A. 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103.

Wilson, M.A., Palmer, T.J. and Taylor, P.D. 1994. Earliest preservation of soft-bodied fossils by epibiont bioimmuration: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky. Lethaia 27: 269-270.