Archive for February 16th, 2014

Wooster Geologists at the North American Paleontological Convention in Florida

February 16th, 2014

Lizzie & Steph 021514GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA–Steph Bosch (’14), Lizzie Reinthal (’14) and I flew out of icy Ohio this weekend to attend the 10th North American Paleontological Convention in warm, sunny northern Florida. The students jointly presented the beautiful poster above on their Independent Study projects in the Matmor Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of southern Israel. It was very well received, especially with the addition of fantastic scanning electron microscope images of bryozoans produced by our colleague Paul Taylor at the Natural History Museum in London.

Crowd scene 021514Here’s a crowd scene from the first poster session at NAPC. If you look closely in the center, you’ll see two Wooster alumnae who are prominent paleontologists. Can’t swing a cat at a paleo meeting without hitting Wooster Geologists.

Hilton 021514This is a nondescript image of our hotel and convention center in Gainesville. I show it only to marvel in the blue, blue sky and perfect temperatures. We are on the University of Florida campus near the Florida Museum of Natural History. The paleontology staff at that museum is sponsoring this meeting — and they are doing an extraordinary job made more complex by the absence of about a third of the participants still snow-bound in the north. We escaped through a window of clear weather in Ohio.

Wooster’s Fossil of the Week: A tubeworm-encrusted parasitic gastropod (Silurian of Indiana)

February 16th, 2014

Platyostoma1_585Last week three Wooster geology students and I visited Ken Karns, an enthusiastic citizen scientist who has developed an extraordinary fossil collection in his home in Lancaster, Ohio. Ken is a man of prodigious energies and skills as he not only is an expert fossil collector and preparator, he also has a world-class curated collection of Ohio beetles! He was introduced to us by our friend Brian Bade, a man with similar enthusiasms and skills. The students were Steph Bosch (’14), Lizzie Reinthal (’14) and Ian Tulungen (’15). Our goals were to meet Ken, see his magnificent collection with Brian and other friends, and then focus on a project for Ian’s future Independent Study work. Success on all counts, and the specimen above is evidence. Ken was very generous in loaning this specimen to us along with several others for Ian’s work.

The above specimen is from the type section of the Waldron Shale Member (Silurian, Wenlockian, Homerian, about 430 million years old) of the Pleasant Mills Formation near St. Paul, south-central Indiana. Ken Karns collected and prepared it. It is a platyceratid snail of the genus Platyostoma Conrad 1842. It is probably of the species P. niagarense Hall 1852, but there is another species in the same unit (P. plebeium Hall 1876). I’m not quite sure of the differences between these species because platyceratids are notoriously variable. It is possible they are synonymous. Unlike most gastropods, platyceratids had calcite shells instead of aragonite, so they are very well preserved. For an excellent taxonomic review of the genus Platyostoma and its founder, Timothy Abbott Conrad, please see Tony Edger’s blog entry. (We’ve talked about Conrad in this blog as well.)
Platyostoma2_585In this different angle on the specimen you can see additional encrusters (sclerobionts) on the surface of the Platyostoma shell. In the lower right is a remnant of a sheet-like bryozoan, but the most prominent sclerobionts are the tubeworms Cornulites proprius Hall 1876. These encrusters interest us very much.
Cornulitids on Platyostoma_585In this closer view it is apparent that several of the cornulitids are aligned with their apertures pointing in the same way. This is a pattern we’ve seen on many of these snails. Platyostoma was a parasitic snail that lived attached to crinoids, which were abundant in the Waldron fauna. They lived high on the calyx of the crinoid firmly fixed to its skeleton. These cornulitids and other encrusters were thus living high off the substrate perched on the snails. They were filter-feeders like the crinoids, so they may have been feeding on some suspended food fraction missed by the crinoid arms, or they were competing for nutrients and added to the parasitic load on the poor crinoids. The cornulitids were further living on a living snail shell, from what we can tell, so they grew with a substrate slowly growing underneath them. This produces all sorts of delicious paleoecological questions to sort out!
Platyostoma long cornulitid_585Check out the size of this specimen of Cornulites proprius attached to another Platyostoma niagarense. Clearly these tubeworms could do very well under these conditions! This is the largest cornulitid I’ve seen.

Ken_Karns_preparatory_labHere is Ken Karns in his fossil preparation laboratory, which he assembled himself. The box with the armholes is for air-abrading specimens to remove matrix.

Display cases KenThis is one section of the display cases Ken has in his basement museum. Most of the specimens shown here are from the Waldron Shale.

Platyostoma collection displayedA closer view of a display of Platyostoma from the Waldron Shale. Note the many encrusters.

Lizzie Brian KenLizzie Reinthal, Brian Bade and Ken talk about fossil preparation with some Waldron material. The cases are full of curated specimens.

Encrusted crinoid rootsThere are so many treasures in Ken’s collections. I am fascinated by this little slab showing the holdfast of a crinoid with sheet-like bryozoans encrusting it. The bryozoans show that the roots were at least partially exposed at some point.

Thank you again to Brian Bade for arranging this trip, and Ken Karns for being such a fantastic host. We are looking forward to many Waldron projects in the future!

References:

Baumiller, T.K. 2003. Evaluating the interaction between platyceratid gastropods and crinoids: a cost–benefit approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 201: 199-209.

Baumiller, T.K. and Gahn, F.J. 2002. Fossil record of parasitism on marine invertebrates with special emphasis on the platyceratid-crinoid interaction. Paleontological Society Papers 8: 195-210.

Brett, C.E., Cramer, B.D., McLaughlin, P.I., Kleffner, M.A., Showers, W.J. and Thomka, J.R. 2012. Revised Telychian–Sheinwoodian (Silurian) stratigraphy of the Laurentian mid-continent: building uniform nomenclature along the Cincinnati Arch. Bulletin of Geosciences 87: 733–753.

Feldman, H.R. 1989. Taphonomic processes in the Waldron Shale, Silurian, southern Indiana. Palaios 4: 144-156.

Gahn, F.J. and Baumiller, T.K. 2006. Using platyceratid gastropod behaviour to test functional morphology. Historical Biology 18: 397-404.

Gahn, F.J., Fabian, A. and Baumiller, T.K. 2003. Additional evidence for the drilling behavior of Paleozoic gastropods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48: 156-156.

Hall, J. 1881. Descriptions of the Species of Fossils Found in the Niagara Group at Waldron, Indiana. In: Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources, Eleventh Annual Report, p. 217-345. [PDF of the text downloadable here.]

Liddell, W.D. and Brett, C.E. (1982). Skeletal overgrowths among epizoans from the Silurian (Wenlockian) Waldron Shale. Paleobiology 8: 67-78.

Peters, S.E. and Bork, K.B. 1998. Secondary tiering on crinoids from the Waldron Shale (Silurian: Wenlockian) of Indiana. Journal of Paleontology 72: 887-894.

Sutton, M.D., Briggs, D.E.G., Siveter, D.J. and Siveter, D.J. 2006. Fossilized soft tissues in a Silurian platyceratid gastropod. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science 273(1590): 1039-1044.

Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, M.A. 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103.