Archive for June 7th, 2013

The ancient Greek city of Selinunte

June 7th, 2013

8. Temple Selinunte Mid 7th BCE 060713MARSALA, SICILY, ITALY–During the afternoon the field party of the International Bryozoology Association drove south out of the Sicilian mountains back to the southern coast to visit the ruins of an entire Greek city founded in the 7th Century BCE and captured by the Carthaginians after a siege in 409 BCE. It is rare to have so much of an ancient city still in place. It was like being in Greece itself. Above is a partially reconstructed temple on the acropolis (a high worship center) opposite the city center across a valley.
9. Selinunte ruined temple 060713Next to the reconstructed temple are two other temples still in ruins. They are a wondrous tangle of columns and blocks.
10. Selinunte column runins Steve 060713Steve Hageman is standing by one of the largest toppled columns. We thought it looked a lot like a very, very large disarticulated crinoid column. (You may have to be a paleontologist to appreciate that viewpoint!)
11. Selinunte Agora destroyed 409 BCE 060713I hiked over to the remains of the agora, or administrative center. It is surrounded by a wall augmented by later inhabitants but still mostly original. It has a spectacular (and strategic) view of the sea.
12. Acropolis viewed from Agora 060713From the agora you can look back to the northeast and have the view of the acropolis temples that the inhabitants must have cherished. I very much like the style of some reconstruction amidst the dramatic and evocative ruins.

A surprising bit of Permian in central Sicily

June 7th, 2013

1. Sicilian Mountains 060713MARSALA, SICILY, ITALY–This morning the pre-conference field trip of the International Bryozoology Association headed into the mountains of central Sicily. The roads were steep and windy, as one would imagine, and the views of mountainsides, villages and fields spectacular. We were high enough to be in some small woods and scrub forests. Our goal was to see some mysterious blocks of Permian limestone seemingly out of place on an island dominated by Cenozoic sediments.
2. Palermo Geologists 060713We met a team of friendly geologists from the University of Palermo in the Sosio Valley near Palazzo Adriano. They were well prepared to tell a complicated story of tectonics in the classic geological manner: maps and charts held by students as a professor lectures. It was very effective, aided by the superb weather and amazing views.
3. Geological cross-section 060713In this geological cross-section, the Permian rocks are shown as blue. Already you see something odd with the same color of rock above and below the blue, showing that it is tectonically bounded. It is part of a melange (in the geological sense) of blocks of rock broken and thrust about during the tectonism of the Miocene. The Permian rock was recognized as such by its fossil content, which includes distinctive conodonts, fusulinids, brachiopods, bryozoans and corals. It sits surrounded by much younger Miocene sediments, demonstrating the complex tectonics leading to this unusual setting.
4. Permian melange fragment MioceneAbove is the Permian outcrop in the Sosio Valley. It stands out as very different from its surroundings by its lithology alone. I admire the geologists, though, who found diagnostic fossils within it — I saw just a very few highly recrystallized fusulinids and corals.
5. Museum Palazzo Adriano 060713For lunch we went to the city museum in Palazzo Adriano and had delicious sandwiches and cakes. There we saw some of the best fossils from the Permian outcrops on display.
6. Palazzo Adriano Church 060713This is one of the churches in Palazzo Adriano on the city square. It looks to be neglected on the exterior, but inside …
7. Palazzo Adriano Church Interior 060713… it is elaborate and well-maintained.