Archive for July 14th, 2012

The last holdouts of pagan Europe

July 14th, 2012

KÄINA, ESTONIA–The little island of Muhu between Saaremaa and the Estonian mainland, had a large prehistoric population — much larger than it has today. The Muhu Estonians built a large fort of stone heaps near the western coast opposite Saaremaa so that they could control the traffic and trade through the Small Strait. The remains of that fortification are seen above. In January 1227, Teutonic Crusaders cornered the last of the pagan Estonians in this stronghold. (They were, in fact, among the last pagans in all of Europe.) Reports say that 20,000 soldiers besieged 2500 Estonian warriors for six days here. All the Estonians were killed save one, who escaped by pretending to be a victorious crusader. Most of the stones of the fort were removed to build the causeway between Muhu and Saaremaa, but the site remains as a ring of earthen walls and a stone monument (below) marking the bloody battlefield.

Wooster geologists return to Saaremaa and Muhu one last time

July 14th, 2012

KÄINA, ESTONIA–Today the Wooster/OSU team crossed the strait between Hiiumaa and Saaremaa to visit some earlier sites one last time on this trip. The Ohio State paleontologists stayed on the northern part of Saaremaa to look for crinoids and Panga, Ninase and Undva Cliffs; the Wooster geologists went farther south and west to visit Soeginina Pank (above) and Nick Fedorchuk’s 2011 field area. This was important to us so that we could compare observations here to Richa Ekka’s exposure of these beds on the eastern side of the island.

Richa stands by Nick’s Soeginina locality to compare it to her own rocks. This Soeginina section seems considerably more dolomitized in the west than the east.

Jonah and Richa at Nick’s outcrop. Richa is pointing to the Wenlock/Ludlow boundary horizon, and Jonah is showing the stromatolite layer near the top of the section. Richa’s section in the east begins somewhere above her finger.

We were impressed by how poorly preserved the stromatolites are in Nick’s section compared to the gorgeous specimens Richa studied earlier this week. You can barely make out the laminae in this western sample. Look here at its equivalent in the east.

Another difference we noted between the Richa and Nick sections was that Nick’s has thin coral branches (above) in storm layers whereas Richa’s does not. Nick’s oncoids are also larger and more complex.

The amount of damage the Soeginina Pank outcrop received in the last year is astonishing. I had worried about our hammer blows leaving noticeable marks on the rocks. The freshly fallen blocks on the cliff above appeared since our visit last June. Much of this is likely due to ice floes slamming into the rocks during the winter.

After our observations at Soeginina Pank, the Wooster geologists drove to Muhu to visit an historical site (more later on that), then went north through Orissaare to Triigi where we reunited with our OSU companions and boarded the ferry for the ride back to our hotel on Hiiumaa. Our two matching field vehicles are seen above at the front of the ferry. We weren’t going to miss the last ferry to the island!